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As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on October 5, 2020
Registration No. 333-
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM S-1
REGISTRATION STATEMENT
UNDER
THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933
DraftKings Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Nevada
7990
84-4052441
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(Primary Standard Industrial
Classification Code Number)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
222 Berkeley Street, 5th Floor
Boston, MA 02116
(617) 986-6744
(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)
R. Stanton Dodge
Chief Legal Officer
DraftKings Inc.
222 Berkeley Street, 5th Floor
Boston, Massachusetts 02116
(617) 986-6744
(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)
Copies to:
Scott D. Miller
Sullivan & Cromwell LLP
125 Broad Street
New York, New York 10004
Tel: (212) 558-4000
Joel L. Rubinstein
Jonathan P. Rochwarger
Elliott M. Smith
White & Case LLP
1221 Avenue of the Americas
New York, New York 10020
Tel: (212) 819-8200
Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: As soon as practicable after this Registration Statement becomes effective.
If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933 check the following box: ☐
If this form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐
If this form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐
If this form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(d) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer  ☐ Accelerated filer  ☐
Non-accelerated filer  ☒ Smaller reporting company  ☒
Emerging growth company  ☒
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act. ☐

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CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE
Title of Each Class of Securities to be Registered
Amount
to be Registered(1)
Proposed
Maximum
Offering
Price
Per Share
Proposed
Maximum
Aggregate
Offering Price(1)(2)
Amount of
Registration Fee(3)(4)
Class A common stock, par value $0.0001 per share
18,400,000 (4)
$ 56.12 $ 1,032,608,000 $ 112,657.54
Total Registration Fee
$ 1,032,608,000 $ 112,657.54
(1)
Includes the offering of additional shares of Class A common stock pursuant to the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares.
(2)
Pursuant to Rule 457(c) under the Securities Act, and solely for the purpose of calculating the registration fee, the proposed maximum offering price per share is $56.12, which is average of the $58.39 (high) and $53.85 (low) sales price of our Class A common stock as reported on The Nasdaq Global Select Market on September 28, 2020, which date is within five business days prior to filing this Registration Statement.
(3)
Calculated by multiplying the proposed maximum aggregate offering price of securities to be registered by 0.00010910.
(4)
Includes an aggregate of 18,400,000 shares of Class A common stock offered by the registrant. As set forth below, an additional 18,400,000 shares of the registrant’s Class A common stock previously registered for resale on Registration No. 333-238051 are being carried forward to this registration statement pursuant to Rule 429 under the Securities Act and are being offered by the selling stockholders named herein. A filing fee of $44,494.40 was previously paid in connection with the prior registration statement.
Pursuant to Rule 429 under the Securities Act, the prospectus filed as part of this registration statement is being filed as a combined prospectus with respect to (a) 18,400,000 shares of the registrant’s Class A common stock remaining unsold under Registration No. 333-238051 and (b) 18,400,000 shares of the registrant’s Class A common stock offered by the registrant, which are being newly registered hereunder. Pursuant to Rule 429, this registration statement constitutes Post-Effective Amendment No. 2 to Registration No. 333-238051 with respect to the offering of such unsold shares thereunder, which are not currently being terminated by the registrant. No other changes shall be deemed to be made to Registration No. 333-238051 other than with respect to the specific shares being sold hereunder by the selling stockholders. Such post-effective amendment will become effective concurrently with the effectiveness of this registration statement in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act.
The registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 or until this registration statement shall become effective on such date as the Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

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The information in this preliminary prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We and the selling stockholders may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This preliminary prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and it is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.
SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED OCTOBER 5, 2020
PRELIMINARY PROSPECTUS
[MISSING IMAGE: lg_draftking-4c.jpg]
DRAFTKINGS INC.
16,000,000 Shares of Class A Common Stock
16,000,000 Shares of Class A Common Stock Offered by the Selling Stockholders
We are offering 16,000,000 shares of our Class A common stock and the selling stockholders named in this prospectus are offering 16,000,000 shares of our Class A common stock. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of shares of Class A common stock by the selling stockholders pursuant to this prospectus. However, we will pay the expenses, other than underwriting discounts and commissions incurred by the selling stockholders. We intend to use the net proceeds from our offering for general corporate purposes.
Our Class A common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “DKNG”. On October 2, 2020, the closing price of our Class A common stock was $63.78 per share.
We are an “emerging growth company,” as that term is defined under the federal securities laws and, as such, are subject to certain reduced public company reporting requirements.
Investing in our securities involves risks that are described in the “Risk Factors” section beginning on page  12 of this prospectus.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of the securities to be issued under this prospectus or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
Per Share
Total
Public offering price
$     $    
Underwriting discounts and commissions(1)
$ $
Proceeds, before expenses, to us
$ $
Proceeds, before expenses, to the selling stockholders
$ $
(1)
See “Underwriting” beginning on page 185 for additional information regarding underwriting compensation.
We and the selling stockholders have granted the underwriters an option to purchase up to 4,800,000 additional shares of Class A common stock at the public offering price less the underwriting discount, at any time within 30 days of the date of this prospectus.
The underwriters expect to deliver the shares of Class A common stock to purchasers on or about October   , 2020.
Joint Book-Running Managers
Credit Suisse
Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC
The date of this prospectus is October   , 2020.

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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS
Pursuant to Rule 429 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), this prospectus is a combined prospectus relating to (a) 18,400,000 shares of Class A common stock offered by the selling stockholders that are currently registered and remain outstanding under Registration No. 333-238051 and (b) 18,400,000 shares of Class A common stock offered by us that are being newly registered hereunder as part of a registration statement on Form S-1 that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”).
You should rely only on the information contained in this prospectus. See “Where You Can Find More Information.”
Neither we nor the selling stockholders have authorized anyone to provide any information or to make any representations other than those contained in this prospectus. We and the selling stockholders take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. This prospectus is an offer to sell only the securities offered hereby and only under circumstances and in jurisdictions where it is lawful to do so. No dealer, salesperson or other person is authorized to give any information or to represent anything not contained in this prospectus. This prospectus is not an offer to sell securities, and it is not soliciting an offer to buy securities, in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus is accurate only as of the date on the front of this prospectus only, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or any sale of a security. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates.
Unless the context indicates otherwise, references to “we”, “us” and “our” refer to DraftKings Inc., a Nevada corporation, and its consolidated subsidiaries following the Business Combination (as defined herein).
TRADEMARKS
This document contains references to trademarks and service marks belonging to other entities. Solely for convenience, trademarks and trade names referred to in this prospectus may appear without the ® or ™ symbols, but such references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that the applicable licensor will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, its rights to these trademarks and trade names. We do not intend our use or display of other companies’ trade names, trademarks or service marks to imply a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of us by, any other companies.
 
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SELECTED DEFINITIONS

“BCA” or “Business Combination Agreement” refers to the Business Combination Agreement, dated as of December 22, 2019, as amended on April 7, 2020, by and among DEAC, Old DK, SBT, the SBT Sellers party thereto, the SBT Sellers’ Representative, DEAC Nevada and Merger Sub.

“Board” or “board of directors” refers to our board of directors.

“Business Combination” refers to the transactions contemplated by the BCA.

“Charter” refers to our amended and restated articles of incorporation.

“Class A common stock” refers to the Class A common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, of the Company.

“Class B common stock” refers to the Class B common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, of the Company.

“Closing” refers to the closing of the Business Combination.

“Closing Date” refers to April 23, 2020, the date on which the Closing occurred.

“Continental” refers to Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company, the transfer agent, warrant agent and escrow agent of DEAC.

“Convertible Notes” refers to those certain subordinated convertible notes, issued by Old DK on or after December 16, 2019 to certain investors in an aggregate principal amount of approximately $109.2 million.

“DEAC” refers to Diamond Eagle Acquisition Corp., a Delaware corporation.

“DEAC Class A common stock” refers to the shares of Class A common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, of DEAC.

“DEAC Class B common stock” refers to the shares of Class B common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, of DEAC.

“DEAC NV” refers to DEAC NV Merger Corp., a Nevada corporation, which was renamed DraftKings Inc. in connection with the Closing.

“DEAC Shares” refers to shares of DEAC Class A common stock and shares of DEAC Class B common stock.

“DEAC Stockholders” refers to, collectively, holders of shares of DEAC Class A common stock and holders of shares of DEAC Class B common stock, but does not include the PIPE Investors or the holders of the Convertible Notes.

“dollars” or “$” refers to U.S. dollars.

“DraftKings” refers to, prior to the Business Combination, DraftKings Inc., a Delaware corporation, and following the Business Combination, DraftKings Inc., a Nevada corporation, and its consolidated subsidiaries.

“Exchange Act” refers to the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.

“founder shares” refers to shares of DEAC Class B common stock initially purchased by our Sponsor and Harry Sloan in a private placement prior to DEAC’s initial public offering and the shares of Class A common stock that were issued upon the automatic conversion of those shares in connection with the Closing.

“Merger Sub” refers to DEAC Merger Sub Inc., a Delaware corporation.

“Nasdaq” refers The Nasdaq Global Select Market.

“Old DK” refers to, prior to the Business Combination, DraftKings Inc., a Delaware corporation.

“Old DK Warrants” refers to the 120,670 warrants initially issued by Old DK to certain institutional investors and which were assumed by the Company and remain outstanding.
 
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“PIPE Investors” refers to certain institutional and accredited investors who are party to the Subscription Agreements.

“PIPE Warrants” refers to the 3.0 million redeemable warrants issued in the Private Placement, each of which is exercisable for one share of DEAC Class A common stock at an exercise price of $11.50 per share, in accordance with its terms, and upon the Closing, became warrants to acquire shares of Class A common stock on the same terms as DEAC’s public warrants.

“Private Placement” refers to the issuance of an aggregate of 30,471,352 shares of DEAC Class A common stock and the PIPE Warrants pursuant to the Subscription Agreements to the PIPE Investors immediately before the Closing, at a purchase price of $10.00 per share.

“private placement warrants” refers to the 3,333,332 warrants initially issued to DEAC’s Sponsor and Harry Sloan in a private placement simultaneously with the closing of DEAC’s initial public offering, each of which is exercisable for one share of our Class A common stock at an exercise price of $11.50 per share, in accordance with its terms, and does not include the PIPE Warrants.

“public warrants” refers to the warrants to purchase shares of DEAC Class A common stock sold as part of the units in DEAC’s initial public offering, each of which, until July 7, 2020 when we redeemed all of our outstanding public warrants that had not been exercised as of July 2, 2020, was exercisable for one share of DEAC Class A common stock at an exercise price of $11.50 per share, in accordance with its terms, and upon the Closing, became warrants to acquire shares of Class A common stock on the same terms as DEAC’s public warrants.

“reincorporation” refers to the change of DEAC’s jurisdiction of incorporation from Delaware to Nevada in connection with the Business Combination through the merger of DEAC with and into DEAC NV, with DEAC NV surviving the merger, pursuant to the terms and subject to the conditions of the Reincorporation Merger Agreement.

“Reincorporation Merger Agreement” refers to the Agreement and Plan of Merger, dated as of March 12, 2020, by and between DEAC and DEAC NV.

“SBT” or “SBTech” refers to SBTech (Global) Limited, a company limited by shares, originally incorporated in Gibraltar and continued as a company under the Isle of Man Companies Act 2006, with registration number 014119V.

“SBT Sellers” refers to each of the holders of capital stock of SBT party to the BCA.

“SBT Sellers’ Representative” refers to Shalom Meckenzie in his capacity as representative of the SBT Sellers under the BCA.

“Securities Act” refers to the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.

“SBT shares” refers to the ordinary shares, par value $0.10 per share, of SBT.

“SEC” refers to the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission.

“Sponsor” refers to Eagle Equity Partners, LLC, a Delaware limited liability company controlled by Jeff Sagansky and Eli Baker.

“Subscription Agreements” refers to the subscription agreements, dated December 22, 2019, between DEAC and the PIPE Investors, pursuant to which DEAC agreed to issue an aggregate of 30,471,352 shares of DEAC Class A common stock plus 3.0 million PIPE Warrants to the PIPE Investors immediately before the Closing at a purchase price of $10.00 per share. In connection with the Closing, the currently issued and outstanding shares of DEAC Class A common stock were exchanged, on a one-for-one basis, for shares of Class A common stock and all of DEAC’s outstanding warrants became warrants to acquire shares of Class A common stock on the same terms as DEAC’s warrants.
 
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CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
The statements contained in this prospectus that are not purely historical are forward-looking statements. Our forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements regarding our or our management team’s expectations, hopes, beliefs, intentions or strategies regarding the future. Forward-looking statements include statements relating to our expectations, hopes, beliefs, intentions or strategies regarding the future. In addition, any statements that refer to projections, forecasts or other characterizations of future events or circumstances, including any underlying assumptions, are forward-looking statements. The words “anticipate,” “believe,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intends,” “may,” “might,” “plan,” “possible,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “should,” “would” and similar expressions may identify forward-looking statements, but the absence of these words does not mean that a statement is not forward-looking. Forward-looking statements in this prospectus may include, for example, statements about:

our ability to raise financing in the future;

our success in retaining or recruiting officers, key employees or directors;

factors relating to our business, operations and financial performance, including:

our ability to effectively compete in the global entertainment and gaming industries;

our ability to successfully acquire and integrate new operations;

our ability to obtain and maintain licenses with gaming authorities;

our inability to recognize deferred tax assets and tax loss carryforwards;

market conditions and global and economic factors beyond our control, including the potential adverse effects of the ongoing global coronavirus (“COVID-19”) pandemic on capital markets, general economic conditions, unemployment and our liquidity, operations and personnel;

intense competition and competitive pressures from other companies worldwide in the industries in which we operate;

litigation and the ability to adequately protect our intellectual property rights; and

other factors detailed herein under the section entitled “Risk Factors.
These forward-looking statements are based on information available as of the date of this prospectus, and current expectations, forecasts and assumptions, and involve a number of judgments, risks and uncertainties. Important factors could cause actual results to differ materially from those indicated or implied by forward-looking statements such as those contained in documents we have filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. Accordingly, forward-looking statements should not be relied upon as representing our views as of any subsequent date, and we do not undertake any obligation to update forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date they were made, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as may be required under applicable securities laws.
As a result of a number of known and unknown risks and uncertainties, our actual results or performance may be materially different from those expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. For a discussion of the risks involved in our business and investing in our common stock, see the section entitled “Risk Factors.”
Should one or more of these risks or uncertainties materialize, or should any of the underlying assumptions prove incorrect, actual results may vary in material respects from those expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. You should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements.
 
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SUMMARY OF THE PROSPECTUS
This summary highlights selected information from this prospectus and does not contain all of the information that is important to you in making an investment decision. This summary is qualified in its entirety by the more detailed information included in this prospectus. Before making your investment decision with respect to our securities, you should carefully read this entire prospectus, including the information under “Risk Factors,” “DraftKings’ Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” “SBT’s Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” “Unaudited Pro Forma Condensed Combined Financial Statements” and the financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus.
The Company
We are a digital sports entertainment and gaming company. We provide users with daily fantasy sports (“DFS”), sports betting and iGaming opportunities, and we are also involved in the design and development of sports betting and casino gaming platform software for online and retail sportsbook and casino gaming products.
Our mission is to make life more exciting by responsibly creating the world’s favorite real-money games and betting experiences. We accomplish this by creating an environment where our users can find enjoyment and fulfillment through daily fantasy sports contests, sports betting and iGaming.
We seek to innovate and to constantly improve our games and product offerings. Our focus is on creating unique and exciting experiences for our users. We are also highly focused on our responsibility as stewards of this new era in real-money gaming. Our ethics guide every decision we make, both in our respect for the tradition of sports and in our investment in regulatory compliance and consumer protection that have guided our company.
Recent Developments
The novel coronavirus is having a significant impact on most businesses, including ours. Our financial performance trends, including the impact of the coronavirus pandemic on our results for the six months ended June 30, 2020, are discussed in the section titled “DraftKings’ Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.” The direct impact on the business of DraftKings beyond disruptions in normal business operations in several of our offices has been primarily through the suspension, postponement and cancellation of major sports seasons and sporting events. Although many major sports seasons and sporting events have recommenced in recent months, COVID-19 could have a continued material adverse impact on economic and market conditions and trigger a period of continued global economic slowdown. The rapid development and fluidity of this situation precludes any prediction as to the ultimate impact of COVID-19, which remains a material uncertainty and risk with respect to DraftKings, our performance, and our financial results and could adversely affect our financial results. In particular, these changes have reduced customers’ use of, and spending on, our product offerings, and have caused us to issue refunds for canceled events, and some retail casinos where we have branded sportsbook and DFS remain closed or have reduced their capacity. Our revenue continues to depend on major sports seasons and sporting events, and we may not generate as much revenue as we would have without the cancellation or postponements in the wake of COVID-19.
On July 7, 2020, we redeemed all of our outstanding public warrants that had not been exercised as of July 2, 2020, which resulted in the exercise of 17.6 million warrants for proceeds to us of $201.4 million and the redemption of 78,156 public warrants at a redemption price of $0.01 per warrant. The private placement warrants were not subject to redemption and, to the extent not exercised, remain outstanding and exercisable. As of October 1, 2020, we had 1,939,171 private placement warrants outstanding.
During the third quarter of 2020, Michael Jordan joined DraftKings as a special advisor to our board of directors. As a special advisor, Mr. Jordan will provide strategic and creative input to the board of directors on company strategy, product development, inclusion, equality and belonging, marketing
 
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activities and other key initiatives. On September 23, 2020, we announced that we had appointed Jocelyn Moore and Valerie Mosley to our board of directors, effective as of that date. Ms. Moore and Ms. Mosley fill two newly created seats on our board of directors, which now consists of 15 total members. Additionally, during the third quarter of 2020, we entered into multi-year agreements with: (i) ESPN to become a co-exclusive sportsbook link-out provider and exclusive daily fantasy sports link-out provider to ESPN across a selection of their digital properties, (ii) the Chicago Cubs (to be their official sports betting and daily fantasy partner), (iii) the New York Giants (to be their official sports betting, iGaming and daily fantasy operator), (iv) the PGA TOUR (to be their official betting operator), and, (v) on October 1, 2020, the Philadelphia Eagles (to be their official sports betting and daily fantasy partner).
Operationally, we launched our standalone casino app in Pennsylvania and West Virginia in July 2020, following the app’s debut in New Jersey in June 2020, and launched retail and online sports betting in Illinois in August 2020.
Our financial results for the three months ended September 30, 2020 are not yet finalized. As of the date of this preliminary prospectus, we expect to report unaudited revenue for the three months ended September 30, 2020 of between $131 million and $133 million on a U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) basis, an increase of approximately 97% as compared with the three months ended September 30, 2019, and approximately 41% as compared with the three months ended September 30, 2019, after giving pro forma effect to the Business Combination as if it had occurred on January 1, 2019 (in each case assuming a midpoint of $132 million for the three months ended September 30, 2020). Atypical hold rates from NFL wagering during the three months ended September 30, 2020 resulted in an estimated negative impact on revenue of approximately $15 million based on our historic average hold rate for online sports betting of approximately 6.5%. As a result of strong customer engagement, we expect our sales and marketing expense, inclusive of stock-based compensation, depreciation and other non-cash expenses, for the three months ended September 30, 2020 to be between $200 million and $210 million on a GAAP basis. Increased time spent at home due to COVID-19 has resulted in increased response rates to our advertising spending and, even with our scaled-up spending on customer acquisition, recent customer acquisition costs have been better than our expectations. We expect our B2C monthly unique payers (“MUPs”) for the three months ended September 30, 2020, to be approximately 1,020,000, representing growth of approximately 64% compared to the same period last year.
The unique sports calendar, with overlapping seasons for all four major U.S. sports during a portion of the three months ended September 30, 2020, has also favorably impacted our handle in a manner that may not be representative of our performance in other periods. Because our financial results for the three months ended September 30, 2020 are not yet finalized and due to the unique nature of the sports calendar during this period, we are providing preliminary data regarding our handle, which we do not intend to provide in the normal course of our financial reporting. Our online sports betting handle for the three months ended September 30, 2020, is expected to have grown approximately 460% compared to the same period last year, including online sports betting handle growth in New Jersey of approximately 110%. Our iGaming handle for the three months ended September 30, 2020 is expected to have grown approximately 335% compared to the same period last year, including iGaming handle growth in New Jersey of approximately 150%.
Cautionary Statement Regarding Preliminary Results
The results for the three months ended September 30, 2020, are preliminary, unaudited and subject to completion, reflect our management’s current views and may change as a result of our management’s review of our results and other factors, including economic and competitive risks and uncertainties. Such preliminary results for the three months ended September 30, 2020, are subject to the finalization and closing of our accounting books and records (which have yet to be performed), and should not be viewed as a substitute for full quarterly financial statements prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP. We caution you that these preliminary results for the three months ended September 30, 2020, are not guarantees of future performance or outcomes and that actual results may differ materially from those described above. You should read this information together with the sections of this prospectus entitled “Selected Consolidated Financial Information” and “DraftKings’ Management’s
 
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Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” our audited consolidated financial statements and our unaudited condensed combined interim financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus.
These preliminary results have been prepared by and are the sole responsibility of our management. BDO USA, LLP (“BDO”) has not audited, reviewed, compiled or performed any procedures with respect to the accompanying preliminary financial data. Accordingly, BDO does not express an opinion or any other form of assurance with respect thereto.
Our Story
We aspire to deliver a product that is developed with our users in mind and to be as trustworthy as we are innovative in everything we bring to market. This comes in the form of what we believe to be leading-edge, proprietary technology that powers real-money games and betting experiences designed for the “skin-in-the-game” sports fan — the fan who seeks a deeper connection to the sporting events that he or she already loves. Our vision for DraftKings has been shaped by this user, both in who he or she is today and who we anticipate he or she will become as the entertainment and gaming industries evolve. At our core, we are a digital sports entertainment and gaming company with roots in technology and analytics that fosters dynamic and personalized experiences for the sports fan.
This vision underpins our position as a leader in today’s fast-growing global entertainment and gaming industries. As of June 30, 2020, DraftKings has hosted over 4.6 million unique paid users. That number encompasses a user base that continues to steadily grow:

During the six months ended June 30, 2020, we had 507,628 average MUPs and revenue of $159.5 million, resulting in an average revenue per MUP (“ARPMUP”) of $47. By comparison, during the same time period in 2019, we had 537,142 average MUPs and revenue of $125.5 million, resulting in an ARPMUP of $39.

During the year ended December 31, 2019, we had 684,103 average MUPs and revenue of $323 million, resulting in an ARMUP of $39. By comparison, during 2018, we had 600,886 average MUPs and revenue of $226 million, resulting in an ARPMUP of $31.
Our growth is driven both by acquiring new users, engaging our existing users and re-engaging our past users. Research tells us that our typical user craves a more immersive and curated fan experience. This was the user we sought with the launch of DFS, our first product offering following our founding in 2011, which has served as the foundation for our growth. Unlike traditional, season-long fantasy sports offerings, DFS challenges users to create a lineup of players within a predefined fantasy “budget” and to make decisions tied to a single day’s sporting events, requiring an elevated level of skill and providing a heightened degree of real-time gratification. This format has fundamentally changed the landscape of sports consumption, driving millions of users to download the DraftKings app and visit our website to make DFS a staple of how they engage with teams, athletes and sports statistics on an everyday basis.
As the popularity of our offerings grew, so did our brand equity, which has been critical to our success over the past eight years. DraftKings became a recognized name among gaming and sports enthusiasts because it represented an entirely new way of interacting with sports. We have remained a recognized name due to the strong and lasting relationships we have formed with our users over time. We have placed our users at the center of our operating model. Built at the intersection of agile technology, data-driven decision-making and dynamic product development, our product offerings and platform are grounded in an absolute focus on our users — who they are and what experiences they want. By leveraging research and analytics to inform our roadmaps, we have built a mobile-first ecosystem that offers experiences tailored to the interests and behaviors of our users, resulting in a truly distinctive and personalized experience for the “skin-in-the-game” sports fan.
Powering our product offerings is a highly scalable platform that allows us to prioritize speed to market without sacrificing the integrity of our products’ performance. Over the past 18 months, we have leveraged the DraftKings’ platform to expand our operations from DFS into two new product offerings: Sportsbook and iGaming, and created a standalone casino app. In August 2018, less than three months
 
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after the U.S. Supreme Court struck down the Professional and Amateur Sports Protection Act of 1992, we launched our online Sportsbook offering in New Jersey. The relative speed with which we moved into this nascent space was no accident: it reflected nearly a decade’s work in agile software development and regulatory know-how that allowed us to navigate this environment. Our implementation of critical responsible-gaming staples like user protection and data security would have been virtually impossible to deliver quickly into an online Sportsbook offering without the strength of our existing infrastructure. Since launching in 2018, we have deepened our understanding of who our sports betting users are and what they value. As of September 1, 2020, our Sportsbook app and website are available in Colorado, Illinois Indiana, Iowa, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Oregon, Pennsylvania and West Virginia. Our standalone casino app is also live in New Jersey, Pennsylvania and West Virginia. As a result of the highly personalized and engaging user experience we offer, we have quickly emerged as one of the most recognized brands in unaided brand association among current online sports bettors and the top website used among sports bettors in the United States, according to a June 2019 survey issued by Ipsos and the Fantasy Sports & Gaming Association.
That model defines our brand in the eyes of both our users and our employees: move rapidly and deliver the experiences that our users love. Our entry into the iGaming space has been no different. Shortly after the launch of our online Sportsbook offering in New Jersey, we turned to iGaming as a clear strategic adjacency for a growing, mobile-centric user base seeking entertainment in real time. We entered an industry with several incumbent land-based licensed operators with mobile offerings and, in less than a year, surged to one of the top operators in the iGaming space in New Jersey based on revenue, according to Eilers & Krejcik Gaming, LLC’s (“Eilers”) U.S. Online Casino Tracker for December 2019. We offer hundreds of games on our iGaming platform across traditional offerings like blackjack, roulette and slot machines, many of which have been designed by our in-house games studio (and which are our most popular in-app offerings). The continued evolution of this platform will serve as a distinct differentiator in our ability to achieve rapid growth in the iGaming space over time.
The intersection between the continued evolution of the distinct experiences we offer and our user-centric DNA is what sets DraftKings apart.
We plan to expand our offerings to begin serving other operators within our industry. We will begin by migrating DraftKings’ own consumer offering onto the SBTech proprietary sports betting platform over time, allowing us to become a fully vertically integrated sports betting operator. We will also leverage our shared infrastructure to service adjacent branded operators in both the United States and internationally at greater scale. This could include online sportsbooks, retail sportsbooks, iGaming operators, as well as governments or lotteries seeking to manage their own sportsbook or iGaming offerings. Our SBTech platform offers one of the industry’s most robust platform solutions to satisfy customers’ sports betting technology needs, ranging from trading and risk management to platform services to support reporting, customer management and regulatory reporting requirements. Our B2B business competes with a variety of other sports betting technology providers and differentiates itself through this full suite platform offering. In addition, we are able to offer through SBTech, a leading iGaming solution via a proprietary platform with integrations to third-party iGaming suppliers.
These capabilities provide the foundation for what we believe to be a best-in-class enterprise offering whose reach will continue to expand. Ultimately, we believe we are uniquely positioned to continue delivering optimal experiences for sports fans who engage deeply with our offerings and to service other companies who seek to offer those experiences themselves.
What Makes Us Different
In order to build the best real-money games and product offerings, we have invested in core disciplines across technology, analytics and marketing, which have become our operational bedrock and have allowed us to rapidly bring innovative new experiences to market while gaining a unique understanding of our users. The result was market leadership in the DFS industry, fueled by a brand reputation and a depth of user trust that has set us apart from our competitors.
Our DFS investments positioned us to successfully compete in online sports betting and iGaming, in addition to DFS. The core strengths that were born out of our DFS experience have been critically
 
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important in the first 18 months of our entry into Sportsbook and iGaming, from the resonance of our brand to the scalability of our technology. Similarly important were the regulatory experience and technical infrastructure we built in adapting to the responsible gaming requirements of DFS, which have served as the foundation of our speed to market in online sports betting and iGaming.
These are the strengths that not only set us apart as a DFS operator, but also will continue to differentiate us as a digital sports entertainment and gaming company:
Mobile-First Product Innovation.   From DraftKings’ inception, we have prided ourselves on our ability to deliver new and exciting product offerings to our users. We were the first company to launch a mobile daily fantasy sports app in 2013, anticipating the impending behavioral shift of a user base that had historically relied on a desktop-only experience. The rapid adoption of this product pushed us to extend native mobile experiences across all of our offerings on both iOS and Android, the result of which has been industry-leading app reviews within the sports and games categories. We have extended this investment to build in-house capabilities in order to deliver proprietary mobile games, ranging from DFS offerings across every major professional sport to the native development of our own casino games. These offerings are unified by a consistent experience that reinforces retention within our apps. Additionally, as a result of user-driven feedback around our in-app experience and our product innovation, we have created programs with DraftKings-built social features, including our private DFS leagues for friends, as well as loyalty programs like our daily virtual rewards program. We continue to reinforce this investment in product innovation by recruiting top-tier engineers, with a particular emphasis on experience in consumer-facing mobile app development.
Scalable Platform and Infrastructure.   The consumer experiences described above sit on a shared technology platform that has allowed for maximum flexibility in our product development strategy. We have established a “one-platform” model by launching features like single sign-on, an integrated wallet and universal user profile, while simultaneously leveraging our technological investments in DFS around responsible gaming, compliance and data security to establish similar infrastructure within Sportsbook and iGaming. The net result is an integrated experience that allows a user to move seamlessly between a DFS contest, a sports bet and a hand of blackjack, all while earning money into one wallet and earning rewards into one profile.
Highly Dependable Source of Users.   In addition to building innovative, scalable product offerings, we also have the ability to effectively acquire users to engage with those offerings. The trusted base of DFS users that we have built over time has provided us recognition among a highly dependable source of users that are willing to engage with our new product offerings. This allows us to establish a foothold for Sportsbook in new jurisdictions from the moment sports betting is legalized in such jurisdiction. Our foothold begins with the strength of our brand, which is honed to create a voice and a message that resonates positively with the American sports fan. We have invested in optimizing the new user experience, both from the perspective of product innovation — such as our seamless registration flow and a first-time user experience that educates our users without intimidating them — and in proprietary growth marketing technology that optimizes user acquisition at scale. We layer marketing on top of this foundation in various forms, from targeted campaigns to our “Refer-a-Friend” program that rewards friend-to-friend invitations. We have invested deeply in marketing technology to create promotional capabilities that match users dynamically to programs and offers we know they will enjoy. We have spent years honing our model with this type of marketing across TV, digital and offline channels, relying entirely on in-house analytics to reduce our cost of acquisition by algorithmically matching the right user to the right offer on the right channel.
User Retention and Monetization.   Tied to the strengths we have built in amassing an existing user base are the capabilities we have harnessed with our existing users. We function from the perspective that no user is more important than our existing ones — these are the users around whom our business has been built, and for whom we continue to operate. To that end, we have made major investments in building a research-and-feedback loop that connects our users directly to our product and marketing teams, ensuring that we are constantly listening and making decisions based on their needs. This informs the way in which we think about retention. For example, we have implemented various creative reinvestment programs tied to mechanisms like giveaways, missions, achievements and rewards, all of which were designed based entirely on input from our users. These programs sit on
 
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top of a data-driven customer relationship management operation that leverages user insights and a suite of models to optimize our retention channels, which we have supplemented with technology that creates automated triggers connecting users to customized offers. All of this technology is underpinned by a data science framework which allows us to build user personae that cut across all of our consumer product offerings, enabling us to intelligently cross sell across all of our product offerings.
Market Access and Compliance Platform.   We have developed technology, product offerings and partnerships to create a sustainable advantage in the gaming and DFS industries. Strategic multi-year arrangements with lotteries, governments and casinos enable us to offer our products to end users.
Additionally, we have obtained licenses in nine states, where it is required, in the United States, and internationally in the United Kingdom, Australia and Malta, to operate our DFS platform. We are also a registered DFS operator in four additional U.S. states where registration versus licensing is required to operate.
Our B2B business, formerly SBTech, has obtained licenses (and approval, as applicable) in six states in the United States and in the United Kingdom, Gibraltar, Malta and Romania. Additionally, our B2B business has certified its software in various territories, including in Denmark, Italy, Nigeria, Portugal, South Africa and Spain, and its services are available in Azerbaijan, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Greece, Mexico, Poland and Spain under local licenses held by operators using SBTech’s platform in these jurisdictions.
Underpinning our regulatory access is our DraftKings platform that allows us to efficiently and safely scale our product offerings into multiple jurisdictions. We have developed our DraftKings platform from the ground up to meet the needs of the unique regulatory environment that the United States offers, while maintaining ease of use for our users. We provide a single experience for login, verification and wallet.
Our SBTech platform has been built from the ground up to meet the needs of differing regulatory regimes, including configurable regulatory and responsible gaming controls such as responsible gaming tests, operator alerts on user behavior, deposit limits, betting limits, loss limits, timeout facilities, session limits, reality checks, balance thresholds and intended gaming amounts. These features allow the operators’ customers full control of their gaming to allow them to play responsibly.
Our Business Model
Across all of our offerings, we provide users with a single integrated platform that provides one account, one wallet, a centralized payment system and responsible gaming controls, compliant with regulations across all jurisdictions in which we operate (we refer to this as our “platform”). This platform enables us to develop a seamless and personalized experience across our product offerings. Our product offerings, consisting of daily fantasy sports, Sportsbook and iGaming, available through both web and mobile applications, generate substantially all of our revenue. Our business model relies on our ability to leverage this multijurisdictional platform and create innovative product offerings that will both attract new users and retain our growing base of users.
Monetizing our Platform
We monetize our platform through the following principal offerings:

Business-to-Consumer (“B2C”)

Daily Fantasy Sports (DFS).   Since launching our platform, we have monetized our DFS offering by facilitating peer-to-peer play, whereby users compete against each other for prize money. We provide users with a technology platform that establishes daily fantasy sports contests, scores the contest, distributes the prize money and performs other administrative activities to enable the “skin-in-the-game” sports fan experience. Our revenue is the difference between the entry fees collected and the amounts paid out to users as prizes and customer incentives in a period.
 
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Sportsbook.   To further enhance the “skin-in-the-game” sports fan experience, shortly after the U.S. Supreme Court struck down the Professional and Amateur Sports Protection Act of 1992 (“PASPA”), we enabled our platform to offer online sports betting. In Sportsbook, we generate revenue from “hold” as users play against the house (us).

iGaming.   iGaming includes the full suite of games available in land-based casinos, such as blackjack, roulette and slot machines, all integrated with our other offerings through our platform. For these offerings, we function similarly to land-based casinos, generating revenue through “hold” as users play against the house (us).

Business-to-Business (“B2B”).   Our B2B business is composed of the legacy SBTech business, a turnkey supplier of an end-to-end suite of services, such as a fully- and semi-managed Internet-based (e.g., mobile) sportsbook with industry-leading risk management tools and an in-house multi-channel technology platform configured with all major payment gateways and adaptable to regulatory requirements, casino providers and customer relationship management tools. In addition, through our B2B business, we offer a leading mobile casino gaming solution via the SBTech proprietary platform with integrations to all leading third-party mobile gaming suppliers. This proprietary platform allows leading mobile sportsbook and casino gaming operators to deliver products under their own brands, powered by SBTech’s leading industry platform engine.
Across all of our principal offerings, as more users place more bets or enter more contests, we earn more revenue. We also generate revenue from offering advertising and sponsorship packages to targeted advertisers across our entertainment and gaming offerings.
Our Priorities
As we continue to invest in our core competitive advantages, we believe we will remain positioned to build a leadership position within the burgeoning global entertainment and gaming industries. We have established several major areas of strategic focus that will guide the way we think about our future growth:
Continue to invest in our products and platform.   We have established a set of competencies that position us at the forefront of the evolving digital sports entertainment and gaming industries. In the immediate term, our focus will be on reinforcing our competitive strengths and our core competencies, in order to continue iterating on our core user experiences while we reinforce the analytical, marketing and technological infrastructure that allows us to scale our offerings. We plan to continue to invest in our users and in our product offerings as we remain dually driven to keep our existing users engaged while we expand the capabilities of the platform that will enable us to rapidly reach new geographies and attract new audiences.
Launch our product offerings in new geographies.   With our experience in regulated gaming jurisdictions in the United States, we are prepared to enter new states as regulations on sports betting and iGaming open up these jurisdictions to us. Whether the appropriate route for a geography is to operate as a mobile consumer operator, a mobile consumer operator with a retail presence, a technology solution provider to a government entity, or any permutation of the foregoing, our goal is to be ready to enter jurisdictions that provide for daily fantasy sports, sports betting and iGaming. We are also well prepared to continue growing our B2B customer base outside of the United States given the flexible and robust nature of the SBTech platform.
Effectively integrate with SBTech to form a vertically integrated operation.   We expect to realize synergies with SBTech by transitioning to its risk and trading sports betting platform over time, with full integration occurring by September 2021, instead of relying on a third-party platform in order to offer Sportsbook. This will provide us with the opportunity to reduce costs and differentiate our offering in North America from other gaming operators in order to establish ourselves as an end-to-end operation across all of our offerings. We expect the transition to SBTech’s risk and trading platform will deliver efficiencies over time as we consolidate redundant capabilities. Additionally, we expect that we will be able to serve other branded consumer operators in the United States and internationally — such as online
 
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sportsbooks, retail sportsbooks and iGaming operators — with our proprietary sports betting and player-management technology. SBTech will allow us to access jurisdictions and opportunities within the footprint of SBTech that would otherwise not be available to us.
Create replicable and predictable state-level unit economics in sports betting and iGaming.    We believe that creating the best state-level unit economics in our industry will be necessary for achieving and maintaining long-term significant market share in the U.S. Using as a baseline the economic framework we have refined over our first 18 months operating in New Jersey, we believe we can create a replicable model that balances the right levels of investment and efficiency within each new jurisdiction that we enter. This will be aided by our integration of the SBTech platform in order to reduce our platform fees and ultimately remove our reliance on third-party platforms to operate our Sportsbook offering. We plan to leverage our national scale to improve our user acquisition costs, reduce our variable operational costs by investing in technology and data science to increase automation, and leverage our combined product, technology and existing user database to create strong strategic partnerships with casinos, lotteries and governments.
Expand our consumer offerings.   In addition to rapidly expanding into new jurisdictions, the strength of our platform is that it allows us to seamlessly integrate new product offerings into the DraftKings ecosystem. This comes in the form of extensions of our existing offerings such as the addition of daily fantasy sports for sporting events like the Olympics, or a deeper investment in our proprietary live-betting mobile experience, as well as in potential expansion into adjacent industries. We are capable of quickly bringing offerings like these to market via our existing technology platform, and to immediately cross-market them to users according to our data analytics.
Government Regulation
We are subject to various U.S. and foreign laws and regulations that affect our ability to operate in the DFS, sports betting and iGaming industries. These industries are generally subject to extensive and evolving regulations that could change based on political and social norms and that could be interpreted in ways that could negatively impact our business.
The gaming industry (inclusive of our iGaming and sports betting product offerings) is highly regulated and we must maintain licenses and pay gaming taxes or a percentage of revenue in each jurisdiction from which we operate in order to continue our operations. Our business is subject to extensive regulation under the laws, rules and regulations of the jurisdictions from which we operate. These laws, rules and regulations generally concern the responsibility, financial stability, integrity and character of the owners, managers and persons with material financial interests in the gaming operations along with the integrity and security of the iGaming and sports betting product offering. Violations of laws or regulations in one jurisdiction could result in disciplinary action in that and other jurisdictions.
Emerging Growth Company
We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in Section 2(a) of the Securities Act, as modified by the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 (the “JOBS Act”), and we may take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies, including, but not limited to, not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements, and exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and stockholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved.
Further, Section 102(b)(1) of the JOBS Act exempts emerging growth companies from being required to comply with new or revised financial accounting standards until private companies (that is, those that have not had a registration statement under the Securities Act declared effective or do not have a class of securities registered under the Exchange Act) are required to comply with the new or revised financial accounting standards. The JOBS Act provides that a company can elect to opt out of the extended transition period and comply with the requirements that apply to non-emerging growth
 
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companies but any such an election to opt out is irrevocable. We have elected not to opt out of such extended transition period which means that when a standard is issued or revised and it has different application dates for public or private companies, we, as an emerging growth company, can adopt the new or revised standard at the time private companies adopt the new or revised standard. This may make comparison of our financial statements with another public company which is neither an emerging growth company nor an emerging growth company which has opted out of using the extended transition period difficult or impossible because of the potential differences in accounting standards used.
We will remain an emerging growth company until the earlier of: (1) the last day of the fiscal year (a) following the fifth anniversary of the closing of the Company’s initial public offering, (b) in which we have total annual revenue of at least $1.07 billion, or (c) in which we are deemed to be a large accelerated filer, which means the market value of our common equity that is held by non-affiliates exceeds $700 million as of the end of the prior fiscal year’s second fiscal quarter; and (2) the date on which we have issued more than $1.00 billion in non-convertible debt securities during the prior three-year period. References herein to “emerging growth company” have the meaning associated with it in the JOBS Act.
Risk Factors
Our business is subject to numerous risks and uncertainties, including those highlighted in the section titled “Risk Factors”, that represent challenges that we face in connection with the successful implementation of our strategy and growth of our business.
Corporate Information
We are a Nevada corporation and were incorporated as DEAC NV Merger Corp., a wholly-owned subsidiary of our legal predecessor, DEAC, a special purpose acquisition company. On April 23, 2020, DEAC consummated the Business Combination and, in connection therewith, (i) DEAC merged with and into us, whereby we survived the merger and became the successor issuer to DEAC by operation of Rule 12g-3(a) promulgated under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), (ii) we changed our name to “DraftKings Inc.,” (iii) we acquired Old DK by way of a merger and (iv) we acquired all of the issued and outstanding share capital of SBTech. Upon consummation of the foregoing transactions, Old DK and SBT became our wholly-owned subsidiaries.
Our principal executive offices are located at 222 Berkeley Street, 5th Floor, Boston, MA 02116. Our telephone number is (617) 986-6744, and our website address is www.draftkings.com. Information contained on our website or connected thereto is provided for textual reference only and does not constitute part of, and is not incorporated by reference into, this prospectus or the registration statement of which it forms a part.
 
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THE OFFERING
Class A common stock offered by us
16,000,000 shares (or 18,400,000 shares if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares in full)
Class A common stock offered by selling stockholders
16,000,000 shares (or 18,400,000 shares if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares in full)
Option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock
We and the selling stockholders have granted the underwriters an option to purchase up to an aggregate of 4,800,000 shares of Class A common stock. This option is exercisable, in whole or in part, within 30 days after the date of this prospectus.
Class A common stock to be outstanding immediately after this offering
373,402,499 shares (or 375,802,499 shares if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares in full)
Use of proceeds
We estimate that after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, we will receive approximately $      million of net proceeds from this offering (or $       million if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares).
We currently intend to use the net proceeds from the offering for general corporate purposes.
We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of shares of Class A common stock by the selling stockholders. We will, however, bear the costs associated with the sale of shares by the selling stockholders, other than underwriting discounts and commissions. See “Use of Proceeds.”
Risk Factors
Investing in our Class A common stock involves a high degree of risk. See “Risk Factors” in this prospectus.
Ticker Symbol
“DKNG” for our Class A common stock.
The number of shares of Class A common stock to be outstanding immediately after this offering is based on 357,402,499 shares of Class A common stock outstanding as of October 1, 2020 and does not include (i) 52,870,000 shares of Class A common stock reserved for issuance under the DraftKings Inc. 2020 Incentive Plan (the “Incentive Plan”), (ii) 5,840,000 shares of Class A common stock reserved for issuance under the DraftKings Employee Stock Purchase Plan (“ESPP”), (iii) 43,485,819 shares of Class A common stock issuable upon the exercise of outstanding options to purchase shares of our Class A common stock, outstanding as of October 1, 2020 and with a weighted average exercise price of $3.10, (iv) 20,147,886 shares of Class A common stock issuable upon the exercise of outstanding restricted stock units, outstanding as of October 1, 2020, and (v) 1,939,171 shares of Class A common stock underlying our private placement warrants.
 
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SUMMARY UNAUDITED PRO FORMA CONDENSED COMBINED FINANCIAL INFORMATION
The following summary unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial data (the “summary pro forma data”) gives effect to the Business Combination described in the section entitled “Unaudited Pro Forma Condensed Combined Financial Information.” The merger between DraftKings and Merger Sub was accounted for as a reverse recapitalization, with no goodwill or other intangible assets recorded, in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Under this method of accounting, DEAC was treated as the “acquired” company for financial reporting purposes. Accordingly, for accounting purposes, the reverse recapitalization for which Old DK has been determined to be the accounting acquirer (the “Reverse Recapitalization”) was treated as the equivalent of Old DK issuing stock for the net assets of DEAC, accompanied by a recapitalization. The net assets of DEAC are stated at historical cost, with no goodwill or other intangible assets recorded. DraftKings’ acquisition of all of the issued and outstanding share capital of SBTech (the “SBTech Acquisition”) was treated as a business combination under Financial Accounting Standards Board’s ASC 805, and was accounted for using the acquisition method of accounting. We recorded the fair value of assets acquired and liabilities assumed from SBTech. The summary unaudited pro forma condensed combined statement of operations data for the six months ended June 30, 2020 and the year ended December 31, 2019 give pro forma effect to the Business Combination and the related transactions as if they had occurred on January 1, 2019.
The summary pro forma data have been derived from, and should be read in conjunction with, the unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information of the combined company and the related notes appearing elsewhere in this prospectus. The unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information is based upon, and should be read in conjunction with, the historical consolidated financial statements of DEAC, Old DK and SBTech and related notes included in this prospectus. The summary pro forma data have been presented for informational purposes only and are not necessarily indicative of what the combined company’s results of operations actually would have been had the Business Combination and the related transactions been completed as of the dates indicated. In addition, the summary pro forma data do not purport to project the future operating results of the combined company.
The following table presents summary pro forma data after giving effect to the Business Combination and the related transactions.
Pro Forma
Combined
(in thousands,
except share
and per
share data)
Summary Unaudited Pro Forma Condensed Combined Statement of Operations
Data Six Months Ended June 30, 2020
Revenue
$
188,443
Net loss per share – basic and diluted
$ (0.69)
Weighted-average Class A shares outstanding — basic and diluted
351,964,934
Summary Unaudited Pro Forma Condensed Combined Statement of Operations
Data Year Ended December 31, 2019
Revenue
$ 431,834
Net loss per share – basic and diluted
$ (0.50)
Weighted-average Class A shares outstanding — basic and diluted
351,964,934
 
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RISK FACTORS
An investment in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks described below as well as the other information included in this prospectus, including “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements,” “Selected Consolidated Financial Information,” “DraftKings’ Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” “SBT’s Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and the consolidated financial statements and the related notes thereto included elsewhere in this prospectus, before making an investment decision. Our business, prospects, financial condition, or operating results could be harmed by any of these risks, as well as other risks not currently known to us or that we currently consider immaterial. The trading price of our securities could decline due to any of these risks, and, as a result, you may lose all or part of your investment.
Risk Factors Relating to Our Business and Industry
Competition within the broader entertainment industry is intense and our existing and potential users may be attracted to competing forms of entertainment such as television, movies and sporting events, as well as other entertainment and gaming options on the Internet. If our offerings do not continue to be popular, our business could be harmed.
We operate in the global entertainment and gaming industries within the broader entertainment industry with our business-to-consumer offerings such as DFS, Sportsbook and iGaming, and our business-to-business offerings through the SBT platform. Our users face a vast array of entertainment choices. Other forms of entertainment, such as television, movies, sporting events and in-person casinos, are more well established and may be perceived by our users to offer greater variety, affordability, interactivity and enjoyment. We compete with these other forms of entertainment for the discretionary time and income of our users. If we are unable to sustain sufficient interest in our recently launched sports betting and iGaming platforms in comparison to other forms of entertainment, including new forms of entertainment, our business model may not continue to be viable.
The specific industries in which we operate are characterized by dynamic customer demand and technological advances, and there is intense competition among online gaming and entertainment providers. A number of established, well-financed companies producing online gaming and/or interactive entertainment products and services compete with our offerings, and other well-capitalized companies may introduce competitive services. Such competitors may spend more money and time on developing and testing products and services, undertake more extensive marketing campaigns, adopt more aggressive pricing or promotional policies or otherwise develop more commercially successful products or services than ours, which could negatively impact our business. Our competitors may also develop products, features, or services that are similar to ours or that achieve greater market acceptance. Such competitors may also undertake more far-reaching and successful product development efforts or marketing campaigns, or may adopt more aggressive pricing policies. Furthermore, new competitors, whether licensed or not, may enter the iGaming industry. There has also been considerable consolidation among competitors in the entertainment and gaming industries and such consolidation and future consolidation could result in the formation of larger competitors with increased financial resources and altered cost structures, which may enable them to offer more competitive products, gain a larger market share, expand offerings and broaden their geographic scope of operations. If we are not able to maintain or improve our market share, or if our offerings do not continue to be popular, our business could suffer.
Economic downturns and political and market conditions beyond our control could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our financial performance is subject to global and U.S. economic conditions and their impact on levels of spending by users and advertisers. Economic recessions have had, and may continue to have, far reaching adverse consequences across many industries, including the global entertainment and gaming industries, which may adversely affect our business and financial condition. In the past decade, global and U.S. economies have experienced tepid growth following the financial crisis in
 
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2008 – 2009 and there appears to be an increasing risk of a recession due to international trade and monetary policy, the global coronavirus pandemic and other changes. If the national and international economic recovery slows or stalls, these economies experience another recession or any of the relevant regional or local economies suffers a downturn, we may experience a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects.
In addition, changes in general market, economic and political conditions in domestic and foreign economies or financial markets, including fluctuation in stock markets resulting from, among other things, trends in the economy as a whole may reduce users’ disposable income and advertisers’ budgets. Any one of these changes could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects.
Reductions in discretionary consumer spending could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Our business is particularly sensitive to reductions from time to time in discretionary consumer spending. Demand for entertainment and leisure activities, including gaming, can be affected by changes in the economy and consumer tastes, both of which are difficult to predict and beyond our control. Unfavorable changes in general economic conditions, including recessions, economic slowdowns, sustained high levels of unemployment, and rising prices or the perception by consumers of weak or weakening economic conditions, may reduce our users’ disposable income or result in fewer individuals engaging in entertainment and leisure activities, such as daily fantasy sports, sports betting and iGaming. As a result, we cannot ensure that demand for our offerings will remain constant. Adverse developments affecting economies throughout the world, including a general tightening of availability of credit, decreased liquidity in certain financial markets, increased interest rates, foreign exchange fluctuations, increased energy costs, acts of war or terrorism, transportation disruptions, natural disasters, declining consumer confidence, sustained high levels of unemployment or significant declines in stock markets, as well as concerns regarding pandemics, epidemics and the spread of contagious diseases, could lead to a further reduction in discretionary spending on leisure activities, such as daily fantasy sports and gaming.
For example, the recent outbreak of COVID-19, a virus originating in China, causing potentially deadly respiratory tract infections, has negatively affected economic conditions regionally as well as globally, and has caused a reduction in consumer spending. Efforts to contain the effect of the virus have included travel restrictions and restrictions on public gatherings. Many businesses have eliminated non-essential travel and canceled in-person events to reduce instances of employees and others being exposed to large public gatherings, and state and local governments across the United States have restricted business activities and strongly encouraged, instituted orders or otherwise restricted individuals from leaving their home.
The direct impact on our business beyond disruptions in normal business operations in several of our offices has been primarily through the suspension, postponement and cancellation of major sports and sporting events. Although many major sports seasons and sporting events have recommenced in recent months, COVID-19 could have a continued material adverse impact on economic and market conditions and trigger a period of continued global economic slowdown. The rapid development and fluidity of this situation precludes any prediction as to the ultimate impact of COVID-19, which remains a material uncertainty and risk with respect to DraftKings, our performance, and our financial results and could adversely affect our financial results. In particular, these changes have reduced customers’ use of, and spending on, our product offerings, and have caused us to issue refunds for canceled events, and some retail casinos where we have a branded sportsbooks and DFS remain closed or have reduced their capacity. Cancellation of March Madness, delay in the MLB season, truncated NBA playoffs, and other events affected by COVID-19 has had an adverse impact on our revenue. Our revenue continues to depend on major sports seasons and sporting events, and we may not generate as much revenue as we would have without the cancellation or postponements in the wake of COVID-19. If a large number of our employees and/or a subset of our key employees and executives are impacted by COVID-19, our ability to continue to operate effectively may be negatively impacted. The ultimate severity of the coronavirus outbreak is uncertain at this time and therefore we cannot predict the full impact it may have
 
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on our end markets and our operations; however, the effect on our results could be material and adverse. Any significant or prolonged decrease in consumer spending on entertainment or leisure activities could adversely affect the demand for our offerings, reducing our cash flows and revenues, and thereby materially harming our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
We may experience fluctuations in our operating results, which make our future results difficult to predict and could cause our operating results to fall below expectations.
Our quarterly financial results have fluctuated in the past and we expect our financial results to fluctuate in the future. These fluctuations may be due to a variety of factors, some of which are outside of our control and may not fully reflect the underlying performance of our business.
Our financial results in any given quarter may be influenced by numerous factors, many of which we are unable to predict or are outside of our control, including the impact of seasonality and our betting results, and the other risks and uncertainties set forth herein. In particular, our betting operations have significant exposure to, and may be materially impacted by, sporting events and seasons, which can result in short-term volatility in betting win margins and user engagement, thus impacting revenues. While we have been able to forecast revenues from our daily fantasy sports business with greater precision than for new offerings, we cannot provide assurances that consumers will engage with our DFS platform on a consistent basis. Consumer engagement in our daily fantasy sports, sports betting and iGaming services may decline or fluctuate as a result of a number of factors, including the popularity of the underlying sports, the user’s level of satisfaction with our platforms, our ability to improve and innovate, our ability to adapt our platform, outages and disruptions of online services, the availability of live sporting events, the services offered by our competitors, our marketing and advertising efforts or declines in consumer activity generally as a result of economic downturns, among others. Any decline or fluctuation in the recurring portion of our business may have a negative impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects.
In our iGaming product offering, operator losses are limited per stake to a maximum payout. When looking at bets across a period of time, however, these losses can potentially be significant. Our quarterly financial results may also fluctuate based on whether we may pay out any jackpots to our iGaming users during the relevant quarter. As part of our iGaming offering, we may offer progressive jackpot games. Each time a progressive jackpot game is played, a portion of the amount wagered by the user is contributed to the jackpot for that specific game or group of games. Once a jackpot is won, the progressive jackpot is reset with a predetermined base amount. While we maintain a provision for these progressive jackpots in the event we choose to offer them, the cost of the progressive jackpot payout would be a cash outflow for our business in the period in which it is won with a potentially significant adverse effect on our financial condition and cash flows. Because winning is underpinned by a random mechanism, we cannot predict with absolute certainty when a jackpot will be won. In addition, we do not insure against random outcomes or jackpot wins.
Our projections are subject to significant risks, assumptions, estimates and uncertainties, including assumptions regarding future legislation and changes in regulations, both inside and outside of the United States. As a result, our projected revenues, market share, expenses and profitability may differ materially from our expectations.
We operate in rapidly changing and competitive industries and our projections are subject to the risks and assumptions made by management with respect to our industries. Operating results are difficult to forecast because they generally depend on our assessment of the timing of adoption of future legislation and regulations by different states, which are uncertain. Furthermore, if we invest in the development of new products or distribution channels that do not achieve significant commercial success, whether because of competition or otherwise, we may not recover the often substantial “up front” costs of developing and marketing those products and distribution channels, or recover the opportunity cost of diverting management and financial resources away from other products or distribution channels.
Additionally, as described above under “— Reductions in discretionary consumer spending could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects,” our
 
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business may be affected by reductions in consumer spending from time to time as a result of a number of factors which may be difficult to predict. This may result in decreased revenue levels, and we may be unable to adopt measures in a timely manner to compensate for any unexpected shortfall in income. This inability could cause our operating results in a given quarter to be higher or lower than expected. If actual results differ from our estimates, analysts may negatively react and our stock price could be materially impacted.
We have a new business model, which makes it difficult for us to forecast our financial results, creates uncertainty as to how investors will evaluate our prospects, and increases the risk that we will not be successful.
DraftKings was incorporated in 2011 and began operating the DFS product offering in 2012. DraftKings expanded from its DFS product offering to include Sportsbook and iGaming product offerings in 2018. Following the consummation of the Business Combination, we have a new business model and new offerings, including a sports betting technology platform. Accordingly, it will be difficult for us to forecast our future financial results, and it will be uncertain how our new business model will affect investors’ perceptions and expectations, which can be idiosyncratic and vary widely, with respect to our prospects. Additionally, as the only vertically integrated U.S.-based sports betting and online gaming company, it may be difficult for investors to evaluate our business due to the lack of similarly situated competitors. Furthermore, our new business model may not be successful. Consequently, you should not rely upon DraftKings’ and SBT’s past quarterly financial results as indicators of our future financial performance, and our financial results and stock price may be negatively affected.
DraftKings has a history of losses and we may continue to incur losses in the future.
Since DraftKings was incorporated in 2011, it has experienced net losses and negative cash flows from operations. We experienced net losses of $230 million and $58 million in the six months ended June 30, 2020 and 2019, respectively, and $143 million in the year ended December 31, 2019. We may continue to experience losses in the future, and we cannot assure you that we will achieve profitability. We may continue to incur significant losses in future periods. We expect our operating expenses to increase in the future as we expand our operations. Furthermore, as a public company, we have incurred and expect to continue to incur additional legal, accounting and other expenses that Old DK did not incur as a private company. If our revenue does not grow at a greater rate than our expenses, we will not be able to achieve or maintain profitability. We may incur significant losses in the future for many reasons, including those described in the other risks and uncertainties described in this prospectus. Additionally, we may encounter unforeseen expenses, operating delays, or other unknown factors that may result in losses in future periods. If our expenses exceed our revenue, our business may be negatively impacted and we may never achieve or maintain profitability.
Our results of operations may fluctuate due to seasonality and other factors and, therefore, our periodic operating results will not be guarantees of future performance.
Our DFS and Sportsbook operations may fluctuate due to seasonal trends and other factors. We believe that significant sporting events such as the playoffs and championship games, tend to impact, among other things, revenues from operations, key metrics and customer activity, and as such, DraftKings’ historical revenues generally have been highest in the fourth quarter when most of those games occur. A majority of our current sports betting and DFS revenue is and will continue to be generated from bets placed on, or contests relating to, the National Football League and the National Basketball Association, each of which have their own respective off-seasons, which may cause decreases in our future revenues during such periods. Our revenues may also be affected by the scheduling of major sporting events that do not occur annually, such as the World Cup, or the cancellation or postponement of sporting events and races, such as the postponement of the 2020 Summer Olympic Games that were supposed to take place this summer. In addition, certain individuals or teams advancing or failing to advance and their scores and other results within specific tournaments, games or events may impact our financial performance.
 
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The success, including win or hold rates, of existing or future sports betting and iGaming products depends on a variety of factors and is not completely controlled by us.
The sports betting and iGaming industries are characterized by an element of chance. Accordingly, we employ theoretical win rates to estimate what a certain type of sports bet or iGame, on average, will win or lose in the long run. Net win is impacted by variations in the hold percentage (the ratio of net win to total amount wagered), or actual outcome, on our iGames and sports betting we offer to our users. We use the hold percentage as an indicator of an iGame’s or sports bet’s performance against its expected outcome. Although each iGame or sports bet generally performs within a defined statistical range of outcomes, actual outcomes may vary for any given period. In addition to the element of chance, win rates (hold percentages) may also (depending on the game involved) be affected by the spread of limits and factors that are beyond our control, such as a user’s skill, experience and behavior, the mix of games played, the financial resources of users, the volume of bets placed and the amount of time spent gambling. As a result of the variability in these factors, the actual win rates on our online iGames and sports bets may differ from the theoretical win rates we have estimated and could result in the winnings of our iGame’s or sports bet’s users exceeding those anticipated. The variability of win rates (hold rates) also have the potential to negatively impact our financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.
Our success also depends in part on our ability to anticipate and satisfy user preferences in a timely manner. As we will operate in a dynamic environment characterized by rapidly changing industry and legal standards, our products will be subject to changing consumer preferences that cannot be predicted with certainty. We will need to continually introduce new offerings and identify future product offerings that complement our existing platforms, respond to our users’ needs and improve and enhance our existing platforms to maintain or increase our user engagement and growth of our business. We may not be able to compete effectively unless our product selection keeps up with trends in the digital sports entertainment and gaming industries in which we compete, or trends in new gaming products.
We rely on information technology and other systems and platforms, and any failures, errors, defects or disruptions in our systems or platforms could diminish our brand and reputation, subject us to liability, disrupt our business, affect our ability to scale our technical infrastructure and adversely affect our operating results and growth prospects. Our games and other software applications and systems, and the third-party platforms upon which they are made available could contain undetected errors.
Our technology infrastructure is critical to the performance of our platform and offerings and to user satisfaction. We devote significant resources to network and data security to protect our systems and data. However, our systems may not be adequately designed with the necessary reliability and redundancy to avoid performance delays or outages that could be harmful to our business. We cannot assure you that the measures we take to prevent or hinder cyber-attacks and protect our systems, data and user information and to prevent outages, data or information loss, fraud and to prevent or detect security breaches, including a disaster recovery strategy for server and equipment failure and back-office systems and the use of third parties for certain cybersecurity services, will provide absolute security. We have experienced, and we may in the future experience, website disruptions, outages and other performance problems due to a variety of factors, including infrastructure changes, human or software errors and capacity constraints. Such disruptions have not had a material impact on us; however, future disruptions from unauthorized access to, fraudulent manipulation of, or tampering with our computer systems and technological infrastructure, or those of third parties, could result in a wide range of negative outcomes, each of which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Additionally, our products may contain errors, bugs, flaws or corrupted data, and these defects may only become apparent after their launch. If a particular product offering is unavailable when users attempt to access it or navigation through our platforms is slower than they expect, users may be unable to place their bets or set their line-ups in time and may be less likely to return to our platforms as often, if at all. Furthermore, programming errors, defects and data corruption could disrupt our operations, adversely affect the experience of our users, harm our reputation, cause our users to stop utilizing our
 
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platforms, divert our resources and delay market acceptance of our offerings, any of which could result in legal liability to us or harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
If our user base and engagement continue to grow, and the amount and types of offerings continue to grow and evolve, we will need an increasing amount of technical infrastructure, including network capacity and computing power, to continue to satisfy our users’ needs. Such infrastructure expansion may be complex, and unanticipated delays in completing these projects or availability of components may lead to increased project costs, operational inefficiencies, or interruptions in the delivery or degradation of the quality of our offerings. In addition, there may be issues related to this infrastructure that are not identified during the testing phases of design and implementation, which may only become evident after we have started to fully use the underlying equipment or software, that could further degrade the user experience or increase our costs. As such, we could fail to continue to effectively scale and grow our technical infrastructure to accommodate increased demands. In addition, our business may be subject to interruptions, delays or failures resulting from adverse weather conditions, other natural disasters, power loss, terrorism, cyber-attacks, public health emergencies (such as the coronavirus) or other catastrophic events.
We believe that if our users have a negative experience with our offerings, or if our brand or reputation is negatively affected, users may be less inclined to continue or resume utilizing our products or recommend our platform to other potential users. As such, a failure or significant interruption in our service would harm our reputation, business and operating results.
Despite our security measures, our information technology and infrastructure may be vulnerable to attacks by hackers or breached due to employee error, malfeasance or other disruptions. Any such breach could compromise our networks and the information stored there could be accessed, publicly disclosed, lost or stolen. Any such access, disclosure or other loss of information could result in legal claims or proceedings, liability under laws that protect the privacy of personal information, and regulatory penalties, disruption of our operations and the services we provide to users, damage to our reputation, and a loss of confidence in our products and services, which could adversely affect our business.
The secure maintenance and transmission of user information is a critical element of our operations. Our information technology and other systems that maintain and transmit user information, or those of service providers, business partners or employee information may be compromised by a malicious third-party penetration of our network security, or that of a third-party service provider or business partner, or impacted by intentional or unintentional actions or inactions by our employees, or those of a third-party service provider or business partner. As a result, our users’ information may be lost, disclosed, accessed or taken without our guests’ consent. We have experienced cyber-attacks, attempts to breach our systems and other similar incidents in the past. For example, we have been and expect that we will continue to be subject to attempts to gain unauthorized access to or through our information systems or those we develop for our customers, whether by our employees or third parties, including cyber-attacks by computer programmers and hackers who may develop and deploy viruses, worms or other malicious software programs. To date these attacks have not had a material impact on our operations or financial results, but we cannot provide assurance that they will not have a material impact in the future.
We rely on encryption and authentication technology licensed from third parties in an effort to securely transmit confidential and sensitive information, including credit card numbers. Advances in computer capabilities, new technological discoveries or other developments may result in the whole or partial failure of this technology to protect transaction data or other confidential and sensitive information from being breached or compromised. In addition, websites are often attacked through compromised credentials, including those obtained through phishing and credential stuffing. Our security measures, and those of our third-party service providers, may not detect or prevent all attempts to breach our systems, denial-of-service attacks, viruses, malicious software, break-ins, phishing attacks, social engineering, security breaches or other attacks and similar disruptions that may jeopardize the security of information stored in or transmitted by our websites, networks and systems or that we or such third parties otherwise maintain, including payment card systems, which may subject us to fines or higher
 
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transaction fees or limit or terminate our access to certain payment methods. We and such third parties may not anticipate or prevent all types of attacks until after they have already been launched. Further, techniques used to obtain unauthorized access to or sabotage systems change frequently and may not be known until launched against us or our third-party service providers.
In addition, security breaches can also occur as a result of non-technical issues, including intentional or inadvertent breaches by our employees or by third parties. These risks may increase over time as the complexity and number of technical systems and applications we use also increases. Breaches of our security measures or those of our third-party service providers or cybersecurity incidents could result in unauthorized access to our sites, networks and systems; unauthorized access to and misappropriation of user information, including users’ personally identifiable information, or other confidential or proprietary information of ourselves or third parties; viruses, worms, spyware or other malware being served from our sites, networks or systems; deletion or modification of content or the display of unauthorized content on our sites; interruption, disruption or malfunction of operations; costs relating to breach remediation, deployment of additional personnel and protection technologies, response to governmental investigations and media inquiries and coverage; engagement of third-party experts and consultants; litigation, regulatory action and other potential liabilities. In the past, we have experienced social engineering, phishing, malware and similar attacks and threats of denial-of-service attacks, none of which to date has been material to our business; however, such attacks could in the future have a material adverse effect on our operations. If any of these breaches of security should occur and be material, our reputation and brand could be damaged, our business may suffer, we could be required to expend significant capital and other resources to alleviate problems caused by such breaches, and we could be exposed to a risk of loss, litigation or regulatory action and possible liability. We cannot guarantee that recovery protocols and backup systems will be sufficient to prevent data loss. Actual or anticipated attacks may cause us to incur increasing costs, including costs to deploy additional personnel and protection technologies, train employees and engage third-party experts and consultants. While we maintain cybersecurity insurance coverage that we believe is adequate for our business, such coverage may not cover all potential costs and expenses associated with cybersecurity incidents that may occur in the future.
In addition, any party who is able to illicitly obtain a user’s password could access the user’s transaction data or personal information, resulting in the perception that our systems are insecure. Any compromise or breach of our security measures, or those of our third-party service providers, could violate applicable privacy, data protection, data security, network and information systems security and other laws and cause significant legal and financial exposure, adverse publicity and a loss of confidence in our security measures, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. We continue to devote significant resources to protect against security breaches or we may need to in the future to address problems caused by breaches, including notifying affected subscribers and responding to any resulting litigation, which in turn, diverts resources from the growth and expansion of our business.
We rely on Amazon Web Services to deliver our offerings to users on our platform, and any disruption of or interference with our use of Amazon Web Services could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
We currently host our sports betting, iGaming and daily fantasy sports platforms and support our operations using Amazon Web Services (“AWS”), a third-party provider of cloud infrastructure services, along with other service providers traditionally used by SBT. We do not, and will not, have control over the operations of the facilities or infrastructure of the third-party service providers that we use. Such third parties’ facilities are vulnerable to damage or interruption from natural disasters, cybersecurity attacks, terrorist attacks, power outages and similar events or acts of misconduct. Our platform’s continuing and uninterrupted performance will be critical to our success. We have experienced, and we expect that in the future we will experience, interruptions, delays and outages in service and availability from these third-party service providers from time to time due to a variety of factors, including infrastructure changes, human or software errors, website hosting disruptions and capacity constraints. In addition, any changes in these third parties’ service levels may adversely affect our ability to meet the requirements of our users. Since our platform’s continuing and uninterrupted performance is critical to our success,
 
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sustained or repeated system failures would reduce the attractiveness of our offerings. It may become increasingly difficult to maintain and improve our performance, especially during peak usage times, as we expand and the usage of our offerings increases. Any negative publicity arising from these disruptions could harm our reputation and brand and may adversely affect the usage of our offerings.
Our commercial agreement with AWS will remain in effect until terminated by AWS or us. AWS may only terminate the agreement for convenience after complying with the contractual 30 day prior notice requirement, except for extraordinary circumstances as laid out in AWS standard terms. AWS may also terminate the agreement for cause upon a breach of the agreement or for failure to pay amounts due, in each case, subject to AWS providing prior written notice and a 30-day cure period. In the event that our agreement with AWS is terminated or we add additional cloud infrastructure service providers, such as the one currently used by SBT, we may experience significant costs or downtime in connection with the transfer to, or the addition of, new cloud infrastructure service providers. Although alternative providers could host our platform on a substantially similar basis to AWS, transitioning the cloud infrastructure currently hosted by AWS to alternative providers could potentially be disruptive and we could incur significant one-time costs.
Any of the above circumstances or events may harm our reputation and brand, reduce the availability or usage of our platform, lead to a significant loss of revenue, increase our costs and impair our ability to attract new users, any of which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We rely on third-party providers to validate the identity and identify the location of our users, and if such providers fail to perform adequately, provide accurate information or we do not maintain business relationships with them, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
There is no guarantee that the third-party geolocation and identity verification systems that we rely on will perform adequately, or be effective. We rely on our geolocation and identity verification systems to ensure we are in compliance with certain laws and regulations, and any service disruption to those systems would prohibit us from operating our platform, and would adversely affect our business. Additionally, incorrect or misleading geolocation and identity verification data with respect to current or potential users received from third-party service providers may result in us inadvertently allowing access to our offerings to individuals who should not be permitted to access them, or otherwise inadvertently deny access to individuals who should be able to access our offerings, in each case based on inaccurate identity or geographic location determination. Our third-party geolocation services provider relies on its ability to obtain information necessary to determine geolocation from mobile devices, operating systems, and other sources. Changes, disruptions or temporary or permanent failure to access such sources by our third-party services providers may result in their inability to accurately determine the location of our users. Moreover, our inability to maintain our existing contracts with third-party services providers, or to replace them with equivalent third parties, may result in our inability to access geolocation and identity verification data necessary for our day-to-day operations. If any of these risks materializes, we may be subject to disciplinary action, fines, lawsuits, and our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
Our platform contains third-party open source software components, and failure to comply with the terms of the underlying open source software licenses could restrict our ability to provide our offerings.
Our platform contains software modules licensed to us by third-party authors under “open source” licenses. Use and distribution of open source software may entail greater risks than use of third-party commercial software, as open source licensors generally do not provide support, warranties, indemnification or other contractual protections regarding infringement claims or the quality of the code. In addition, the public availability of such software may make it easier for others to compromise our platform.
Some open source licenses contain requirements that we make available source code for modifications or derivative works we create based upon the type of open source software we use, or
 
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grant other licenses to our intellectual property. If we combine our proprietary software with open source software in a certain manner, we could, under certain open source licenses, be required to release the source code of our proprietary software to the public. This would allow our competitors to create similar offerings with lower development effort and time and ultimately could result in a loss of our competitive advantages. Alternatively, to avoid the public release of the affected portions of our source code, we could be required to expend substantial time and resources to re-engineer some or all of our software.
Although we monitor our use of open source software to avoid subjecting our platform to conditions we do not intend, the terms of many open source licenses have not been interpreted by U.S. or foreign courts, and there is a risk that these licenses could be construed in a way that could impose unanticipated conditions or restrictions on our ability to provide or distribute our platform. From time to time, there have been claims challenging the ownership of open source software against companies that incorporate open source software into their solutions. As a result, we could be subject to lawsuits by parties claiming ownership of what we believe to be open source software. Moreover, we cannot assure you that our processes for controlling our use of open source software in our platform will be effective. If we are held to have breached or failed to fully comply with all the terms and conditions of an open source software license, we could face infringement or other liability, or be required to seek costly licenses from third parties to continue providing our offerings on terms that are not economically feasible, to re-engineer our platform, to discontinue or delay the provision of our offerings if re-engineering could not be accomplished on a timely basis or to make generally available, in source code form, our proprietary code, any of which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We rely on third-party payment processors to process deposits and withdrawals made by our users into the platform, and if we cannot manage our relationships with such third parties and other payment-related risks, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
We rely on a limited number of third-party payment processors to process deposits and withdrawals made by our users into our platform. If any of our third-party payment processors terminates its relationship with us or refuses to renew its agreement with us on commercially reasonable terms, we would need to find an alternate payment processor, and may not be able to secure similar terms or replace such payment processor in an acceptable time frame. Further, the software and services provided by our third-party payment processors may not meet our expectations, contain errors or vulnerabilities, be compromised or experience outages. Any of these risks could cause us to lose our ability to accept online payments or other payment transactions or make timely payments to users on our platform, any of which could make our platform less trustworthy and convenient and adversely affect our ability to attract and retain our users.
Nearly all of our payments are made by credit card, debit card or through other third-party payment services, which subjects us to certain regulations and to the risk of fraud. We may in the future offer new payment options to users that may be subject to additional regulations and risks. We are also subject to a number of other laws and regulations relating to the payments we accept from our users, including with respect to money laundering, money transfers, privacy and information security. If we fail to comply with applicable rules and regulations, we may be subject to civil or criminal penalties, fines and/or higher transaction fees and may lose our ability to accept online payments or other payment card transactions, which could make our offerings less convenient and attractive to our users. If any of these events were to occur, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
For example, if we are deemed to be a money transmitter as defined by applicable regulation, we could be subject to certain laws, rules and regulations enforced by multiple authorities and governing bodies in the United States and numerous state and local agencies who may define money transmitter differently. For example, certain states may have a more expansive view of who qualifies as a money transmitter. Additionally, outside of the United States, we could be subject to additional laws, rules and regulations related to the provision of payments and financial services, and if we expand into new
 
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jurisdictions, the foreign regulations and regulators governing our business that we are subject to will expand as well. If we are found to be a money transmitter under any applicable regulation and we are not in compliance with such regulations, we may be subject to fines or other penalties in one or more jurisdictions levied by federal or state or local regulators, including state Attorneys General, as well as those levied by foreign regulators. In addition to fines, penalties for failing to comply with applicable rules and regulations could include criminal and civil proceedings, forfeiture of significant assets or other enforcement actions. We could also be required to make changes to our business practices or compliance programs as a result of regulatory scrutiny.
Additionally, our payment processors require us to comply with payment card network operating rules, which are set and interpreted by the payment card networks. The payment card networks could adopt new operating rules or interpret or reinterpret existing rules in ways that might prohibit us from providing certain offerings to some users, be costly to implement or difficult to follow. We have agreed to reimburse our payment processors for fines they are assessed by payment card networks if we or the users on our platform violate these rules. Any of the foregoing risks could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We rely on other third-party sports data providers for real-time and accurate data for sporting events, and if such third parties do not perform adequately or terminate their relationships with us, our costs may increase and our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
We rely on third-party sports data providers such as SportRadar and BetGenius to obtain accurate information regarding schedules, results, performance and outcomes of sporting events. We rely on this data to determine when and how bets are settled or how users rank in their fantasy contests. We have experienced, and may continue to experience, errors in this data feed which may result in us incorrectly settling bets or ranking users in their contests. If we cannot adequately resolve the issue with our users, our users may have a negative experience with our offerings, our brand or reputation may be negatively affected and our users may be less inclined to continue or resume utilizing our products or recommend our platform to other potential users. As such, a failure or significant interruption in our service would harm our reputation, business and operating results.
Furthermore, if any of our sports data partners terminates its relationship with us or refuses to renew its agreement with us on commercially reasonable terms, we would need to find an alternate provider, and may not be able to secure similar terms or replace such providers in an acceptable time frame. Any of these risks could increase our costs and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Further, any negative publicity related to any of our third-party partners, including any publicity related to regulatory concerns, could adversely affect our reputation and brand, and could potentially lead to increased regulatory or litigation exposure.
We rely on other third-party service providers and if such third parties do not perform adequately or terminate their relationships with us, our costs may increase and our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
Our success depends in part on our relationships with other third-party service providers. For example, we rely on third parties for content delivery, load balancing and protection against distributed denial-of-service attacks. If those providers do not perform adequately, our users may experience issues or interruptions with their experiences. Furthermore, if any of our partners terminates its relationship with us or refuses to renew its agreement with us on commercially reasonable terms, we would need to find an alternate provider, and may not be able to secure similar terms or replace such providers in an acceptable time frame. We also rely on other software and services supplied by third parties, such as communications and internal software, and our business may be adversely affected to the extent such software and services do not meet our expectations, contain errors or vulnerabilities, are compromised or experience outages. Any of these risks could increase our costs and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Further, any negative publicity related to any of our third-party partners, including any publicity related to regulatory concerns, could adversely affect our reputation and brand, and could potentially lead to increased regulatory or litigation exposure.
 
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We incorporate technology from third parties into our platform. We cannot be certain that our licensors are not infringing the intellectual property rights of others or that the suppliers and licensors have sufficient rights to the technology in all jurisdictions in which we may operate. Some of our license agreements may be terminated by our licensors for convenience. If we are unable to obtain or maintain rights to any of this technology because of intellectual property infringement claims brought by third parties against our suppliers and licensors or against us, or if we are unable to continue to obtain the technology or enter into new agreements on commercially reasonable terms, our ability to develop our platform containing that technology could be severely limited and our business could be harmed. Additionally, if we are unable to obtain necessary technology from third parties, we may be forced to acquire or develop alternate technology, which may require significant time and effort and may be of lower quality or performance standards. This would limit and delay our ability to provide new or competitive offerings and increase our costs. If alternate technology cannot be obtained or developed, we may not be able to offer certain functionality as part of our offerings, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
If we fail to detect fraud or theft, including by our users and employees, our reputation may suffer which could harm our brand and reputation and negatively impact our business, financial condition and results of operations and can subject us to investigations and litigation.
We have in the past incurred, and may in the future incur, losses from various types of financial fraud, including use of stolen or fraudulent credit card data, claims of unauthorized payments by a user and attempted payments by users with insufficient funds. Bad actors use increasingly sophisticated methods to engage in illegal activities involving personal information, such as unauthorized use of another person’s identity, account information or payment information and unauthorized acquisition or use of credit or debit card details, bank account information and mobile phone numbers and accounts. Under current credit card practices, we may be liable for use of funds on our platform with fraudulent credit card data, even if the associated financial institution approved the credit card transaction.
Acts of fraud may involve various tactics, including collusion. Successful exploitation of our systems could have negative effects on our product offerings, services and user experience and could harm our reputation. Failure to discover such acts or schemes in a timely manner could result in harm to our operations. In addition, negative publicity related to such schemes could have an adverse effect on our reputation, potentially causing a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. In the event of the occurrence of any such issues with our existing platform or product offerings, substantial engineering and marketing resources and management attention, may be diverted from other projects to correct these issues, which may delay other projects and the achievement of our strategic objectives.
In addition, any misappropriation of, or access to, users’ or other proprietary information or other breach of our information security could result in legal claims or legal proceedings, including regulatory investigations and actions, or liability for failure to comply with privacy and information security laws, including for failure to protect personal information or for misusing personal information, which could disrupt our operations, force us to modify our business practices, damage our reputation and expose us to claims from our users, regulators, employees and other persons, any of which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Despite measures we have taken to detect and reduce the occurrence of fraudulent or other malicious activity on our platform, we cannot guarantee that any of our measures will be effective or will scale efficiently with our business. Our failure to adequately detect or prevent fraudulent transactions could harm our reputation or brand, result in litigation or regulatory action and lead to expenses that could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
If Internet and other technology-based service providers experience service interruptions, our ability to conduct our business may be impaired and our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
A substantial portion of our network infrastructure is provided by third parties, including Internet service providers and other technology-based service providers. See “— We rely on Amazon Web
 
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Services to deliver our offerings to users on our platform and any disruption of or interference with our use of Amazon Web Services could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.” We require technology-based service providers to implement cyber-attack-resilient systems and processes. However, if Internet service providers experience service interruptions, including because of cyber-attacks, or due to an event causing an unusually high volume of Internet use (such as a pandemic or public health emergency), communications over the Internet may be interrupted and impair our ability to conduct our business. Internet service providers and other technology-based service providers may in the future roll out upgraded or new mobile or other telecommunications services, such as 5G or 6G services, which may not be successful and thus may impact the ability of our users to access our platform or offerings in a timely fashion or at all. In addition, our ability to process e-commerce transactions depends on bank processing and credit card systems. To prepare for system problems, we continuously seek to strengthen and enhance our current facilities and the capabilities of our system infrastructure and support. Nevertheless, there can be no assurance that the Internet infrastructure or our own network systems will continue to be able to meet the demand placed on us by the continued growth of the Internet, the overall online gaming industry and our users. Any difficulties these providers face, including the potential of certain network traffic receiving priority over other traffic (i.e., lack of net neutrality), may adversely affect our business, and we exercise little control over these providers, which increases our vulnerability to problems with the services they provide. Any system failure as a result of reliance on third parties, such as network, software or hardware failure, including as a result of cyber-attacks, which causes a loss of our users’ property or personal information or a delay or interruption in our online services and products and e-commerce services, including our ability to handle existing or increased traffic, could result in a loss of anticipated revenue, interruptions to our platform and offerings, cause us to incur significant legal, remediation and notification costs, degrade the customer experience and cause users to lose confidence in our offerings, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
We rely on strategic relationships with casinos, tribes and horse-tracks in order to be able to offer our products in certain jurisdictions. If we cannot establish and manage such relationships with such partners, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
Under some states’ sports betting laws, online sports betting is limited to a finite number of retail operators, such as casinos, tribes or tracks, who own a “skin” or “skins” under that state’s law. A “skin” is a legally-authorized license from a state to offer online sports betting services provided by a casino. The “skin” provides a market access opportunity for mobile operators to operate in the jurisdiction pending licensure and other required approvals by the state’s regulator. The entities that control those “skins,” and the numbers of  “skins” available, are typically determined by a state’s sports betting law. In most of the jurisdictions in which we offer sports betting and iGaming, we currently rely on a casino, tribe or track in order to get a “skin.” These “skins” are what allows us to gain access to jurisdictions where online operators are required to have a retail relationship. If we cannot establish, renew or manage our relationships, our relationships could terminate and we would not be allowed to operate in those jurisdictions until we enter into new ones. As a result, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
Our growth will depend, in part, on the success of our strategic relationships with third parties. Overreliance on certain third parties, or our inability to extend existing relationships or agree to new relationships may cause unanticipated costs for us and impact our financial performance in the future.
We rely on relationships with sports leagues and teams, professional athletes and athlete organizations, advertisers, casinos and other third parties in order to attract users to our platform. These relationships along with providers of online services, search engines, social media, directories and other websites and ecommerce businesses direct consumers to our platform. In addition, many of the parties with whom we have advertising arrangements provide advertising services to other companies, including other fantasy sports and gaming platforms with whom we compete. While we believe there are other third parties that could drive users to our platform, adding or transitioning to them may disrupt our business and increase our costs. In the event that any of our existing relationships or our future
 
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relationships fails to provide services to us in accordance with the terms of our arrangement, or at all, and we are not able to find suitable alternatives, this could impact our ability to attract consumers cost effectively and harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Our growth prospects may suffer if we are unable to develop successful offerings or if we fail to pursue additional offerings. In addition, if we fail to make the right investment decisions in our offerings and technology platform, we may not attract and retain key users and our revenue and results of operations may decline.
DraftKings was founded in 2011 with a singular focus on the DFS industry and has primarily focused its efforts in the last eight years on growing the DFS product offering. In 2018, DraftKings expanded its product offerings to include its Sportsbook and iGaming offerings. DraftKings has rapidly expanded and we anticipate expanding further as new product offerings mature and as we pursue our growth strategies.
The industries in which we operate are subject to rapid and frequent changes in standards, technologies, products and service offerings, as well as in customer demands and expectations and regulations. We must continuously make decisions regarding which offerings and technology to invest in to meet customer demand in compliance with evolving industry standards and regulatory requirements and must continually introduce and successfully market new and innovative technologies, offerings and enhancements to remain competitive and effectively stimulate customer demand, acceptance and engagement. Our ability to engage, retain, and increase our user base and to increase our revenue will depend heavily on our ability to successfully create new offerings, both independently and together with third parties. We may introduce significant changes to our existing platforms and offerings or develop and introduce new and unproven products, with which we have little or no prior development or operating experience. The process of developing new offerings and systems is inherently complex and uncertain, and new offerings may not be well received by users, even if well-reviewed and of high quality. If we are unable to develop technology and products that address users’ needs or enhance and improve our existing platforms and offerings in a timely manner, that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Although we intend to continue investing in our research and development efforts, if new or enhanced offerings fail to engage our users or partners, we may fail to attract or retain users or to generate sufficient revenue, operating margin, or other value to justify our investments, any of which may seriously harm our business. In addition, management may not properly ascertain or assess the risks of new initiatives, and subsequent events may alter the risks that were evaluated at the time we decided to execute any new initiative. Creating additional offerings can also divert our management’s attention from other business issues and opportunities. Even if our new offerings attain market acceptance, those new offerings could exploit the market share of our existing product offerings or share of our users’ wallets in a manner that could negatively impact their ecosystem. Furthermore, such expansion of our business increases the complexity of our business and places a significant strain on our management, operations, technical systems and financial resources and we may not recover the often-substantial up-front costs of developing and marketing new offerings, or recover the opportunity cost of diverting management and financial resources away from other offerings. In the event of continued growth of our operations, products or in the number of third-party relationships, we may not have adequate resources, operationally, technologically or otherwise to support such growth and the quality of our platforms, offerings or our relationships with third parties could suffer. In addition, failure to effectively identify, pursue and execute new business initiatives, or to efficiently adapt our processes and infrastructure to meet the needs of our innovations, may adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Any new offerings may also require our users to utilize new skills to use our platform. This could create a lag in adoption of new offerings and new user additions related to any new offerings. To date, new offerings and enhancements on our existing platforms have not hindered our user growth or engagement, but that may be the result of a large portion of our user base being in a younger demographic and more willing to invest the time to learn to use our products most effectively. To the extent that future users, including those in older demographics, are less willing to invest the time to learn
 
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to use our products, and if we are unable to make our products easier to learn to use, our user growth or engagement could be affected, and our business could be harmed. We may develop new products that increase user engagement and costs without increasing revenue.
Additionally, we may make bad or unprofitable decisions regarding these investments. If new or existing competitors offer more attractive offerings, we may lose users or users may decrease their spending on our platforms. New customer demands, superior competitive offerings, new industry standards or changes in the regulatory environment could render our existing offerings unattractive, unmarketable or obsolete and require us to make substantial unanticipated changes to our platforms or business model. Our failure to adapt to a rapidly changing market or evolving customer demands could harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Our growth will depend on our ability to attract and retain users, and the loss of our users, failure to attract new users in a cost-effective manner, or failure to effectively manage our growth could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Our ability to achieve growth in revenue in the future will depend, in large part, upon our ability to attract new users to our offerings, retain existing users of our offerings and reactivate users in a cost-effective manner. Achieving growth in our community of users may require us to increasingly engage in sophisticated and costly sales and marketing efforts, which may not make sense in terms of return on investment. We have used and expect to continue to use a variety of free and paid marketing channels, in combination with compelling offers and exciting games to achieve our objectives. For paid marketing, we intend to leverage a broad array of advertising channels, including television, radio, social media platforms, such as Facebook, Instagram, Twitter and Snap, affiliates and paid and organic search, and other digital channels, such as mobile display. If the search engines on which we rely modify their algorithms, change their terms around gaming, or if the prices at which we may purchase listings increase, then our costs could increase, and fewer users may click through to our website. If links to our website are not displayed prominently in online search results, if fewer users click through to our website, if our other digital marketing campaigns are not effective, of it the costs of attracting users using any of our current methods significantly increase, then our ability to efficiently attract new users could be reduced, our revenue could decline and our business, financial condition and results of operations could be harmed.
In addition, our ability to increase the number of users of our offerings will depend on continued user adoption of DFS, Sportsbook and iGaming. Growth in the DFS, Sportsbook and iGaming industries and the level of demand for and market acceptance of our product offerings will be subject to a high degree of uncertainty. We cannot assure that consumer adoption of our product offerings will continue or exceed current growth rates, or that the industry will achieve more widespread acceptance.
Additionally, as technological or regulatory standards change and we modify our platform to comply with those standards, we may need users to take certain actions to continue playing, such as performing age verification checks or accepting new terms and conditions. Users may stop using our product offerings at any time, including if the quality of the user experience on our platform, including our support capabilities in the event of a problem, does not meet their expectations or keep pace with the quality of the customer experience generally offered by competitive offerings.
Our core values of focusing on our users first and acting for the long term may conflict with the short-term interests of our business.
One of our operating principles is to put our users first, which we believe is essential to our success and serves the best, long-term interests of our company and our stakeholders. Therefore, we have made in the past and we may make in the future, certain investments or changes in strategy that we think will benefit our users, even if our decision negatively impacts our operating results in the short term.
 
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Our business model depends upon the continued compatibility between our app and the major mobile operating systems and upon third-party platforms for the distribution of our product offerings. If Google Play or the Apple App Store prevent users from downloading our apps or block advertising from being delivered to our users, our ability to grow our revenue, profitability and prospects may be adversely affected.
The substantial majority of our users access our DFS, Sportsbook and iGaming product offerings primarily on mobile devices, and we believe that this will continue to be increasingly important to our long-term success. Our business model depends upon the continued compatibility between our app and the major mobile operating systems. Third parties with whom we do not have any formal relationships control the design of mobile devices and operating systems. These parties frequently introduce new devices, and from time to time they may introduce new operating systems or modify existing ones. Network carriers may also impact the ability to download apps or access specified content on mobile devices.
In addition, we rely upon third-party platforms for distribution of our product offerings. The DFS product offering is delivered as a free application through both the Apple App Store and the Google Play Store and is also accessible via mobile and traditional websites. The Sportsbook and iGaming product offerings are primarily distributed through the Apple App Store and a traditional website. The Google Play store and Apple App Store are global application distribution platforms and the main distribution channels for our app. As such, the promotion, distribution and operation of our app are subject to the respective distribution platforms’ standard terms and policies for application developers, which are very broad and subject to frequent changes and interpretation. Furthermore, the distribution platforms may not enforce their standard terms and policies for application developers consistently and uniformly across all applications and with all publishers.
There is no guarantee that popular mobile devices will start or continue to support or feature our product offerings, or that mobile device users will continue to use our product offerings rather than competing products. We are dependent on the interoperability of our platforms with popular mobile operating systems, technologies, networks and standards that we do not control, such as the Android and iOS operating systems, and any changes, bugs, technical or regulatory issues in such systems, our relationships with mobile manufacturers and carriers, or in their terms of service or policies that degrade our offerings’ functionality, reduce or eliminate our ability to distribute our offerings, give preferential treatment to competitive products, limit our ability to deliver high quality offerings, or impose fees or other charges related to delivering our offerings, could adversely affect our product usage and monetization on mobile devices.
Moreover, our products require high-bandwidth data capabilities in order to place time-sensitive bets. If the growth of high-bandwidth capabilities, particularly for mobile devices, is slower than we expect, our user growth, retention, and engagement may be seriously harmed. Additionally, to deliver high-quality content over mobile cellular networks, our product offerings must work well with a range of mobile technologies, systems, networks, regulations, and standards that we do not control. In particular, any future changes to the iOS or Android operating systems may impact the accessibility, speed, functionality, and other performance aspects of our platforms, which issues are likely to occur in the future from time to time. In addition, the adoption of any laws or regulations that adversely affect the growth, popularity, or use of the Internet, including laws governing Internet neutrality, could decrease the demand for our products and increase our cost of doing business. Specifically, any laws that would allow mobile providers in the United States to impede access to content, or otherwise discriminate against content providers like us, such as providing for faster or better access to our competitors, over their data networks, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Furthermore, we may not successfully cultivate relationships with key industry participants or develop product offerings that operate effectively with these technologies, systems, networks, regulations, or standards. If it becomes more difficult for our users to access and use our platform on their mobile devices, if our users choose not to access or use our platform on their mobile devices, or if our users choose to use mobile products that do not offer access to our platform, our user growth, retention, and engagement could be seriously harmed.
 
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In addition, if any of the third-party platforms used for distribution of our product offerings were to limit or disable advertising on their platforms, either because of technological constraints or because the owner of these distribution platforms wished to impair our ability to serve ads on them, our ability to generate revenue could be harmed. Also, technologies may be developed that can block the display of our ads. These changes could materially impact the way we do business, and if we or our advertising partners are unable to quickly and effectively adjust to those changes, there could be an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects.
We may require additional capital to support our growth plans, and such capital may not be available on terms acceptable to us, if at all. This could hamper our growth and adversely affect our business.
We intend to make significant investments to support our business growth and may require additional funds to respond to business challenges, including the need to develop new offerings and features or enhance our existing platform, improve our operating infrastructure or acquire complementary businesses, personnel and technologies. Accordingly, we may need to engage in equity or debt financings to secure additional funds. Our ability to obtain additional capital, if and when required, will depend on our business plans, investor demand, our operating performance, capital markets conditions and other factors. If we raise additional funds by issuing equity, equity-linked or debt securities, those securities may have rights, preferences or privileges senior to the rights of our currently issued and outstanding equity or debt, and our existing shareholders may experience dilution. If we are unable to obtain additional capital when required, or on satisfactory terms, our ability to continue to support our business growth or to respond to business opportunities, challenges or unforeseen circumstances could be adversely affected, and our business may be harmed.
We may invest in or acquire other businesses, and our business may suffer if we are unable to successfully integrate acquired businesses into our company or otherwise manage the growth associated with multiple acquisitions.
As part of our business strategy, we have made, and we intend to continue to make, acquisitions as opportunities arise to add new or complementary businesses, products, brands or technologies. In some cases, the costs of such acquisitions may be substantial, including as a result of professional fees and due diligence efforts. There is no assurance that the time and resources expended on pursuing a particular acquisition will result in a completed transaction, or that any completed transaction will ultimately be successful. In addition, we may be unable to identify suitable acquisition or strategic investment opportunities, or may be unable to obtain any required financing or regulatory approvals, and therefore may be unable to complete such acquisitions or strategic investments on favorable terms, if at all. We may decide to pursue acquisitions with which our investors may not agree and we cannot assure investors that any acquisition or investment will be successful or otherwise provide a favorable return on investment. In addition, acquisitions and the integration thereof require significant time and resources and place significant demands on our management, as well as on our operational and financial infrastructure. In addition, if we fail to successfully close transactions or integrate new teams, or integrate the products and technologies associated with these acquisitions into our company, our business could be seriously harmed. Acquisitions may expose us to operational challenges and risks, including:

the ability to profitably manage acquired businesses or successfully integrate the acquired businesses’ operations, personnel, financial reporting, accounting and internal controls, technologies and products into our business;

increased indebtedness and the expense of integrating acquired businesses, including significant administrative, operational, economic, geographic or cultural challenges in managing and integrating the expanded or combined operations;

entry into jurisdictions or acquisition of products or technologies with which we have limited or no prior experience, and the potential of increased competition with new or existing competitors as a result of such acquisitions;

diversion of management’s attention and the over-extension of our operating infrastructure and our management systems, information technology systems, and internal controls and procedures, which may be inadequate to support growth;
 
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the ability to fund our capital needs and any cash flow shortages that may occur if anticipated revenue is not realized or is delayed, whether by general economic or market conditions, or unforeseen internal difficulties; and

the ability to retain or hire qualified personnel required for expanded operations.
Our acquisition strategy may not succeed if we are unable to remain attractive to target companies or expeditiously close transactions. Issuing shares of Class A common stock to fund an acquisition would cause economic dilution to existing stockholders. If we develop a reputation for being a difficult acquirer or having an unfavorable work environment, or target companies view our Class A common stock unfavorably, we may be unable to consummate key acquisition transactions essential to our corporate strategy and our business may be seriously harmed.
We are party to pending litigation in various jurisdictions and with various plaintiffs and we may be subject to future litigation in the operation of our business. An adverse outcome in one or more proceedings could adversely affect our business.
In the past we have been party to, and we may in the future increasingly face the risk of, claims, lawsuits, and other proceedings involving competition and antitrust, intellectual property, privacy, consumer protection, accessibility claims, securities, tax, labor and employment, commercial disputes, services and other matters. See “Business — Legal Proceedings.” Litigation to defend us against claims by third parties, or to enforce any rights that we may have against third parties, may be necessary, which could result in substantial costs and diversion of our resources, causing a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Any litigation to which we are a party may result in an onerous or unfavorable judgment that may not be reversed upon appeal, or in payments of substantial monetary damages or fines, the posting of bonds requiring significant collateral, letters of credit or similar instruments, or we may decide to settle lawsuits on similarly unfavorable terms. These proceedings could also result in reputational harm, criminal sanctions, consent decrees or orders preventing us from offering certain products or requiring a change in our business practices in costly ways or requiring development of non-infringing or otherwise altered products or technologies. Litigation and other claims and regulatory proceedings against us could result in unexpected disciplinary actions, expenses and liabilities, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Our business is subject to a variety of U.S. and foreign laws, many of which are unsettled and still developing and which could subject us to claims or otherwise harm our business. Any change in existing regulations or their interpretation, or the regulatory climate applicable to our products and services, or changes in tax rules and regulations or interpretation thereof related to our products and services, could adversely impact our ability to operate our business as currently conducted or as we seek to operate in the future, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
We are generally subject to laws and regulations relating to fantasy sports, sports betting and iGaming in the jurisdictions in which we conduct our business or in some circumstances, of those jurisdictions in which we offer our services or those are available, as well as the general laws and regulations that apply to all e-commerce businesses, such as those related to privacy and personal information, tax and consumer protection. These laws and regulations vary from one jurisdiction to another and future legislative and regulatory action, court decisions or other governmental action, which may be affected by, among other things, political pressures, attitudes and climates, as well as personal biases, may have a material impact on our operations and financial results. In particular, some jurisdictions have introduced regulations attempting to restrict or prohibit online gaming, while others have taken the position that online gaming should be licensed and regulated and have adopted or are in the process of considering legislation and regulations to enable that to happen. Additionally some jurisdictions in which we may operate could presently be unregulated or partially regulated and therefore more susceptible to the enactment or change of laws and regulations.
We offer our DFS product offering in 23 states that have adopted legislation permitting online fantasy sports. In those states that currently require a license or registration, we have either obtained
 
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the appropriate license or registration, have obtained a provisional license, or are operating pursuant to a grandfathering clause that allows operation pending the availability of licensing applications and subsequent grant of a license. We also have three foreign licenses and operates under those licenses in eight countries.
We operate in 21 states and one country, Canada, that do not have fantasy sports-specific laws or regulations. In those jurisdictions, our business may be subject to future legislative and regulatory action, court decisions or other governmental action that could alter or eliminate our ability to operate. On February 6, 2020, a state intermediate appellate court in New York determined in a split decision that a law specifically authorizing paid fantasy sports contests in New York violated the New York constitution. This decision is currently stayed; however, if upheld, it could jeopardize our ability to operate our DFS offering in New York. In addition, in certain states in which DraftKings operates, including Texas and Florida, the applicable office of the Attorney General has issued an adverse legal opinion regarding DFS. In the event that one of those Attorneys General decides to take action on the opinion from their office, we may have to withdraw our operations from such state, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
In May 2018, the U.S. Supreme Court struck down as unconstitutional PASPA. This decision has the effect of lifting federal restrictions on sports betting and thus allows states to determine by themselves the legality of sports betting. Since the repeal of PASPA, several states (including Washington D.C.) have legalized online sports betting. To the extent new real money gaming or sports betting jurisdictions are established or expanded, we cannot guarantee that we will be successful in penetrating such new jurisdictions or expanding our business or user base in line with the growth of existing jurisdictions. If we are unable to effectively develop and operate directly or indirectly within these new jurisdictions or if our competitors are able to successfully penetrate geographic jurisdictions that we cannot access or where we face other restrictions, there could be a material adverse effect on our business, operating results and financial condition. Our failure to obtain or maintain the necessary regulatory approvals in jurisdictions, whether individually or collectively, would have a material adverse effect on our business. See “Business — Government Regulation.” To expand into new jurisdictions, we may need to be licensed and obtain approvals of our product offerings. This is a time-consuming process that can be extremely costly. Any delays in obtaining or difficulty in maintaining regulatory approvals needed for expansion within existing jurisdictions or into new jurisdictions can negatively affect our opportunities for growth, including the growth of our customer base, or delay our ability to recognize revenue from our offerings in any such jurisdictions.
Future legislative and regulatory action, and court decisions or other governmental action, may have a material impact on our operations and financial results. Governmental authorities could view us as having violated local laws, despite our efforts to obtain all applicable licenses or approvals. There is also a risk that civil and criminal proceedings, including class actions brought by or on behalf of prosecutors or public entities or incumbent monopoly providers, or private individuals, could be initiated against us, Internet service providers, credit card and other payment processors, advertisers and others involved in the DFS, sports betting and iGaming industries. Such potential proceedings could involve substantial litigation expense, penalties, fines, seizure of assets, injunctions or other restrictions being imposed upon us or our licensees or other business partners, while diverting the attention of key executives. Such proceedings could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects, as well as impact our reputation.
There can be no assurance that legally enforceable legislation will not be proposed and passed in jurisdictions relevant or potentially relevant to our business to prohibit, legislate or regulate various aspects of the DFS, iGaming and sports betting industries (or that existing laws in those jurisdictions will not be interpreted negatively). Compliance with any such legislation may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations, either as a result of our determination that a jurisdiction should be blocked, or because a local license or approval may be costly for us or our business partners to obtain and/or such licenses or approvals may contain other commercially undesirable conditions.
 
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In the context of our EU-facing operations, we may be subject to specific compliance obligations under the General Data Protection Regulation (EU) 2016/679 (the “GDPR”) and implementing legislation in different EU Member States in which we operate. In addition, portions of our business established outside the EU may be required to comply with the requirements of the GDPR with respect to the offering of products or services to, or the monitoring of, individuals in the EU. We may also be subject to the local privacy and data protection laws of the EU Member States in which we offer products or services, which can carry penalties and potential criminal sanctions. In addition, Directive 2002/58/EC (as amended by Directive 2009/136/EC) (together, the “e-Privacy Directive”) governs, among other things, the use of cookies and the sending of electronic direct marketing within the European Union and, as such, will apply to our marketing activities within the EU.
In our efforts to comply with these requirements, we rely on positions and interpretations of the law that have yet to be fully tested before the relevant courts and regulators. If a regulator or court of competent jurisdiction determined that one or more of our compliance efforts does not satisfy the applicable requirements of the GDPR or the e-Privacy Directive, or if any party brought a claim in this regard, there could be potential governmental or regulatory investigations, enforcement actions, regulatory fines, compliance orders, litigation or public statements against us by consumer advocacy groups or others, and that could cause customers to lose trust in us and damage our reputation. Likewise, a change in guidance could be costly and have an adverse effect on our business.
Our growth prospects depend on the legal status of real-money gaming in various jurisdictions, predominantly within the United States, which is an initial area of focus, and legalization may not occur in as many states as we expect, or may occur at a slower pace than we anticipate. Additionally, even if jurisdictions legalize real money gaming, this may be accompanied by legislative or regulatory restrictions and/or taxes that make it impracticable or less attractive to operate in those jurisdictions, or the process of implementing regulations or securing the necessary licenses to operate in a particular jurisdiction may take longer than we anticipate, which could adversely affect our future results of operations and make it more difficult to meet our expectations for financial performance.
A number of states have legalized, or are currently considering legalizing, real money gaming, and our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects are significantly dependent upon legalization of real money gaming. Our business plan is partially based upon the legalization of real money gaming for a specific percent of the population on a yearly basis and the legalization may not occur as we have anticipated. Additionally, if a large number of additional states or the federal government enact real money gaming legislation and we are unable to obtain, or are otherwise delayed in obtaining the necessary licenses to operate online sports betting or iGaming websites in U.S. jurisdictions where such games are legalized, our future growth in online sports betting and iGaming could be materially impaired.
As we enter into new jurisdictions, states or the federal government may legalize real money gaming in a manner that is unfavorable to us. As a result, we may encounter legal, regulatory and political challenges that are difficult or impossible to foresee and which could result in an unforeseen adverse impact on planned revenues or costs associated with the new opportunity. For example, certain states require us to have a relationship with a land-based, licensed casino for online Sportsbook access, which tends to increase our costs of revenue. States that have established state-run monopolies may limit opportunities for private sector participants like us. States also impose substantial tax rates on online sports betting and iGaming revenue, in addition to sales taxes in certain jurisdictions and a federal excise tax of 25 basis points on the amount of each wager. As most state product taxes apply to various measures of modified gross profit, tax rates, whether federal- or state-based, that are higher than we expect will make it more costly and less desirable for us to launch in a given jurisdiction, while tax increases in any of our existing jurisdictions may adversely impact our profitability.
Therefore, even in cases in which a jurisdiction purports to license and regulate DFS, sports betting or iGaming, the licensing and regulatory regimes can vary considerably in terms of their business-friendliness and at times may be intended to provide incumbent operators with advantages over new licensees. Therefore, some “liberalized” regulatory regimes are considerably more commercially attractive than others.
 
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Failure to comply with regulatory requirements in a particular jurisdiction, or the failure to successfully obtain a license or permit applied for in a particular jurisdiction, could impact our ability to comply with licensing and regulatory requirements in other jurisdictions, or could cause the rejection of license applications or cancelation of existing licenses in other jurisdictions, or could cause financial institutions, online and mobile platforms, advertisers and distributors to stop providing services to us which we rely upon to receive payments from, or distribute amounts to, our users, or otherwise to deliver and promote our services.
Compliance with the various regulations applicable to fantasy sports and real money gaming is costly and time-consuming. Regulatory authorities at the non-U.S., U.S. federal, state and local levels have broad powers with respect to the regulation and licensing of fantasy sports and real money gaming operations and may revoke, suspend, condition or limit our fantasy sports or real money gaming licenses, impose substantial fines on us and take other actions, any one of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. These laws and regulations are dynamic and subject to potentially differing interpretations, and various legislative and regulatory bodies may expand current laws or regulations or enact new laws and regulations regarding these matters. We will strive to comply with all applicable laws and regulations relating to our business. It is possible, however, that these requirements may be interpreted and applied in a manner that is inconsistent from one jurisdiction to another and may conflict with other rules. Non-compliance with any such law or regulations could expose us to claims, proceedings, litigation and investigations by private parties and regulatory authorities, as well as substantial fines and negative publicity, each of which may materially and adversely affect our business.
Any fantasy sports or real money gaming license could be revoked, suspended or conditioned at any time. The loss of a license in one jurisdiction could trigger the loss of a license or affect our eligibility for such a license in another jurisdiction, and any of such losses, or potential for such loss, could cause us to cease offering some or all of our offerings in the impacted jurisdictions. We may be unable to obtain or maintain all necessary registrations, licenses, permits or approvals, and could incur fines or experience delays related to the licensing process, which could adversely affect our operations. Our delay or failure to obtain or maintain licenses in any jurisdiction may prevent us from distributing our offerings, increasing our customer base and/or generating revenues. We cannot assure you that we will be able to obtain and maintain the licenses and related approvals necessary to conduct our DFS, Sportsbook and iGaming operations. Any failure to maintain or renew our existing licenses, registrations, permits or approvals could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Our growth prospects and market potential will depend on our ability to obtain licenses to operate in a number of jurisdictions and if we fail to obtain such licenses our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be impaired.
Our ability to grow our business will depend on our ability to obtain and maintain licenses to offer our product offerings in a large number of jurisdictions or in heavily populated jurisdictions. If we fail to obtain and maintain licenses in large jurisdictions or in a greater number of mid-market jurisdictions, this may prevent us from expanding the footprint of our product offerings, increasing our user base and/or generating revenues. We cannot be certain that we will be able to obtain and maintain licenses and related approvals necessary to conduct our DFS, Sportsbook and iGaming operations. Any failure to obtain and maintain licenses, registrations, permits or approvals could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
We have been the subject of governmental investigations and inquiries with respect to the operation of our businesses and we could be subject to future governmental investigations and inquiries, legal proceedings and enforcement actions. Any such investigation, inquiry, proceeding or action, could adversely affect our business.
We have received formal and informal inquiries from time to time, from government authorities and regulators, including tax authorities and gaming regulators, regarding compliance with laws and other matters, and we may receive such inquiries in the future, particularly as we grow and expand our
 
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operations. Violation of existing or future regulations, regulatory orders or consent decrees could subject us to substantial monetary fines and other penalties that could negatively affect our financial condition and results of operations. In addition, it is possible that future orders issued by, or inquiries or enforcement actions initiated by, government or regulatory authorities could cause us to incur substantial costs, expose us to unanticipated liability or penalties, or require us to change our business practices in a manner materially adverse to our business.
Participation in the sports betting industry exposes us to trading, liability management and pricing risk. We may experience lower than expected profitability and potentially significant losses as a result of a failure to determine accurately the odds in relation to any particular event and/or any failure of its sports risk management processes.
Our fixed-odds betting products involve betting where winnings are paid on the basis of the stake placed and the odds quoted. Odds are determined with the objective of providing an average return to the bookmaker over a large number of events and therefore, over the long term, our gross win percentage has remained fairly constant. However, there can be significant variation in gross win percentage event-by-event and day-by-day. We have systems and controls that seek to reduce the risk of daily losses occurring on a gross-win basis, but there can be no assurance that these will be effective in reducing our exposure, and consequently our exposure to this risk in the future. As a result, in the short term, there is less certainty of generating a positive gross win, and we may experience (and we have from time to time experienced) significant losses with respect to individual events or betting outcomes, in particular if large individual bets are placed on an event or betting outcome or series of events or betting outcomes. Odds compilers and risk managers are capable of human error, thus even allowing for the fact that a number of betting products are subject to capped pay-outs, significant volatility can occur. In addition, it is possible that there may be such a high volume of trading during any particular period that even automated systems would be unable to address and eradicate all risks. Any significant losses on a gross-win basis could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, if a jurisdiction where we hold or wish to apply for a license imposes a high turnover tax for betting (as opposed to a gross-win tax), this too would impact profitability, particularly with high value/low margin bets, and likewise have a material adverse effect on our business.
Palpable (obvious) errors in Sportsbook odds making occasionally occur in the normal course of business, sometimes for large liabilities. While it is a worldwide standard business practice to void bets associated with palpable errors or to correct the odds, there is no guarantee regulators will approve voiding palpable errors moving forward in every case.
Our Sportsbook offers a huge spectrum of betting markets across dozens of sports, and the odds are set through a combination of algorithmic and manual odds making. Bet acceptance is also a combination of automatic and manual acceptance. In some cases, the odds offered on the website constitute an obvious error. Examples of such errors are inverted lines between teams, or odds that are significantly different from the true odds of the outcome in a way that all reasonable persons would agree is an error. It is commonplace virtually worldwide for operators to void bets associated with such palpable errors, and in most mature jurisdictions these bets can be voided without regulatory approval at operator discretion. In the U.S., it is unclear long term if state-by-state regulators will consistently approve voids or re-setting odds to correct odds on such bets. In some cases, we require regulatory approval to void palpable errors ahead of time. If regulators were to not allow voiding of bets associated with large obvious errors in odds making, we could be subject to covering significant liabilities.
We follow the industry practice of restricting and managing betting limits at the individual customer level based on individual customer profiles and risk level to the enterprise; however there is no guarantee that states will allow operators such as us to limit on the individual customer level.
Similar to a credit card company managing individual risk on the customer level through credit limits, it is customary for sports betting operators to manage customer betting limits at the individual level to manage enterprise risk levels. We believe this practice is beneficial overall, because if it were not possible, the betting options would be restricted globally and limits available to customers would be
 
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much lower to insulate overall risk due to the existence of a very small segment of highly sophisticated syndicates and algorithmic bettors, or bettors looking to take advantage of site errors and omissions. We believe virtually all operators balance taking reasonable action from all customers against the risk of individual customers significantly harming the business viability. We cannot assure you that all state legislation and regulators will always allow operators to execute limits at the individual customer level, or at their sole discretion.
Negative events or negative media coverage relating to, or a declining popularity of, daily fantasy sports, sports betting, the underlying sports or athletes, online sports betting or iGaming in particular, or other negative coverage may adversely impact our ability to retain or attract users, which could have an adverse impact on our business.
Public opinion can significantly influence our business. Unfavorable publicity regarding us, for example, our product changes, product quality, litigation, or regulatory activity, or regarding the actions of third parties with whom we have relationships or the underlying sports (including declining popularity of the sports or athletes) could seriously harm our reputation. In addition, a negative shift in the perception of sports betting and iGaming by the public or by politicians, lobbyists or others could affect future legislation of sports betting and iGaming, which could cause jurisdictions to abandon proposals to legalize sports betting and iGaming, thereby limiting the number of jurisdictions in which we can operate. Furthermore, illegal betting activity by athletes could result in negative publicity for our industry and could harm our brand reputation. Negative public perception could also lead to new restrictions on or to the prohibition of iGaming or sports betting in jurisdictions in which we currently operate. Such negative publicity could also adversely affect the size, demographics, engagement, and loyalty of our customer base and result in decreased revenue or slower user growth rates, which could seriously harm our business.
We may have difficulty accessing the service of banks, credit card issuers and payment processing services providers, which may make it difficult to sell our products and services.
Although financial institutions and payment processors are permitted to provide services to us and others in our industry, banks, credit card issuers and payment processing service providers may be hesitant to offer banking and payment processing services to real money gaming and fantasy sports businesses. Consequently, those businesses involved in our industry, including our own, may encounter difficulties in establishing and maintaining banking and payment processing relationships with a full scope of services and generating market rate interest. If we were unable to maintain our bank accounts or our users were unable to use their credit cards, bank accounts or e-wallets to make deposits and withdrawals from our platforms it would make it difficult for us to operate our business, increase our operating costs, and pose additional operational, logistical and security challenges which could result in an inability to implement our business plan.
The requirements of being a public company may strain our resources and divert management’s attention, and the increases in legal, accounting and compliance expenses may be greater than we anticipate.
We became a public company following the Closing of the Business Combination, and as such (and particularly after we are no longer an “emerging growth company”), have incurred, and will continue to incur, significant legal, accounting and other expenses that DraftKings and SBT did not incur as private companies. We are subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act, and are required to comply with the applicable requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, as well as the rules and regulations subsequently implemented by the SEC and the listing standards of The Nasdaq Stock Market, including changes in corporate governance practices and the establishment and maintenance of effective disclosure and financial controls. Compliance with these rules and regulations can be burdensome. Our management and other personnel need to devote a substantial amount of time to these compliance initiatives. Moreover, these rules and regulations will increase our historical legal and financial compliance costs and will make some activities more time-consuming and costly. For example, we expect that these rules and regulations may make it more difficult and more expensive for us to attract and retain qualified members
 
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of our Board as compared to DraftKings and SBT as private companies. In particular, we expect to incur significant expenses and devote substantial management effort toward ensuring compliance with the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, which will increase when we are no longer an “emerging growth company.” We will need to hire additional accounting and financial staff, and engage outside consultants, all with appropriate public company experience and technical accounting knowledge and maintain an internal audit function, which will increase our operating expenses. Moreover, we could incur additional compensation costs in the event that we decide to pay cash compensation closer to that of other publicly-listed companies, which would increase our general and administrative expenses and could materially and adversely affect our profitability. We are evaluating these rules and regulations, and cannot predict or estimate the amount of additional costs we may incur or the timing of such costs.
As private companies, DraftKings and SBT were not required to document and test their internal controls over financial reporting nor was their management required to certify the effectiveness of their internal controls or have their respective auditors opine on the effectiveness of their internal control over financial reporting. Failure to maintain adequate financial, information technology and management processes and controls could result in material weaknesses which could lead to errors in our financial reporting, which could adversely affect our business now that we are a public company.
DraftKings and SBT were not required to document and test their internal controls over financial reporting nor was their management required to certify the effectiveness of their internal controls or have their respective auditors opine on the effectiveness of their internal control over financial reporting. Similarly, as an “emerging growth company,” DEAC was exempt from the SEC’s internal control reporting requirements. We may lose our emerging growth company status and become subject to the SEC’s internal control over financial reporting management and auditor attestation requirements in the year in which we are deemed to be a large accelerated filer, which would occur once we are subject to Exchange Act reporting requirements for 12 months, have filed at least one SEC annual report and the market value of our common equity held by non-affiliates exceeds $700 million as of the end of the prior fiscal year’s second fiscal quarter. We will be subject to the SEC’s internal control reporting and attestation requirements with respect to our annual report on Form 10-K for the year ending December 31, 2021. Additionally, our independent registered public accounting firm will be required to formally attest to the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting commencing with our second annual report on Form 10-K (i.e. for the year ending December 31, 2021). We may not be able to complete our evaluation, testing and any required remediation in a timely fashion. In addition, our current controls and any new controls that we develop may become inadequate because of poor design and changes in our business, including increased complexity resulting from any international expansion. Any failure to implement and maintain effective internal controls over financial reporting could adversely affect the results of assessments by our independent registered public accounting firm and their attestation reports.
If we are unable to certify the effectiveness of our internal controls, or if our internal controls have a material weakness, we may not detect errors timely, our consolidated financial statements could be misstated, we could be subject to regulatory scrutiny and a loss of confidence by stakeholders, which could harm our business and adversely affect the market price of our common stock.
Continued growth and success will depend on the performance of our current and future employees, including certain key employees. Recruitment and retention of these individuals is vital to growing our business and meeting our business plans. The loss of any of our key executives or other key employees could harm our business.
We depend on a limited number of key personnel to manage and operate our business, including DraftKings’ co-founders, our Chief Financial Officer and our Chief Legal Officer. The leadership of these key personnel was a critical element of Old DK’s success and we expect that such leadership will continue to be a critical element of DraftKings’ success going forward. The leadership of our current executive officers has been a critical element of Old DK’s success, and the departure, death or disability of any one of our executive officers or other extended or permanent loss of any of their services, or any negative market or industry perception with respect to any of them or their loss, could have a material
 
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adverse effect on our business. We are the beneficiary of a $2 million key man insurance policy covering our Chief Executive Officer, but we are not protected by key man or similar life insurance covering other executive officers or members of senior management.
In addition, certain of our other employees have made significant contributions to our growth and success. We believe our success and our ability to compete and grow will depend in large part on the efforts and talents of our employees and on our ability to retain highly skilled personnel. The competition for these types of personnel is intense and we compete with other potential employers for the services of our employees. As a result, we may not succeed in retaining the executives and other key employees that we need. Employees, particularly analysts and engineers, are in high demand, and we devote significant resources to identifying, hiring, training, successfully integrating and retaining these employees. We cannot provide assurance that we will be able to attract or retain such highly qualified personnel in the future. In addition, the loss of employees or the inability to hire additional skilled employees as necessary could result in significant disruptions to our business, and the integration of replacement personnel could be time-consuming and expensive and cause additional disruptions to our business.
All of our Named Executive Officers (as defined below) are employees-at-will. The unexpected loss of services of one or more of these key employees could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Additionally, as we grow and develop the infrastructure as a public company, we may find it difficult to maintain our entrepreneurial, innovative and team-based culture. Our retention and recruiting may require significant increases in compensation expense as we transition to a public company, which would adversely affect our results of operation. Moreover, there may also be disparities of wealth between those of our employees who were employees of DraftKings or SBT prior to the Business Combination and those who join us after the Closing, which may harm our culture and relations among employees.
If we do not succeed in attracting, hiring, and integrating excellent personnel, or retaining and motivating existing personnel, we may be unable to grow effectively and our business could be seriously harmed.
In some jurisdictions our key executives, certain employees or other individuals related to the business will be subject to licensing or compliance requirements. Failure by such individuals to obtain the necessary licenses or comply with individual regulatory obligations, could cause the business to be non-compliant with its obligations, or imperil its ability to obtain or maintain licenses necessary for the conduct of the business. In some cases, the remedy to such situation may require the removal of a key executive or employee and the mandatory redemption or transfer of such person’s equity securities.
As part of obtaining real money gaming licenses, the responsible gaming authority will generally determine suitability of certain directors, officers and employees and, in some instances, significant shareholders. The criteria used by gaming authorities to make determinations as to who requires a finding of suitability or the suitability of an applicant to conduct gaming operations varies among jurisdictions, but generally requires extensive and detailed application disclosures followed by a thorough investigation. Gaming authorities typically have broad discretion in determining whether an applicant should be found suitable to conduct operations within a given jurisdiction. If any gaming authority with jurisdiction over our business were to find an applicable officer, director, employee or significant shareholder of ours unsuitable for licensing or unsuitable to continue having a relationship with us, we would be required to sever our relationship with that person. Furthermore, such gaming authorities may require us to terminate the employment of any person who refuses to file required applications. Either result could have a material adverse effect on our business, operations and prospects. See “Business — Government Regulation.”
In addition, our Charter provides that any of our common stock or other equity securities owned or controlled by any stockholder whom the Board determines in good faith (following consultation with reputable outside gaming regulatory counsel), pursuant to a resolution adopted by the unanimous
 
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affirmative vote of all of the disinterested members of the Board, is an unsuitable person, will be subject to mandatory sale and transfer to either us or one or more third-party transferees.
Additionally, a gaming regulatory body may refuse to issue or renew a gaming license or restrict or condition the same, based on our present activities or the past activities of DraftKings or SBT, or the past or present activities of their or our current or former directors, officers, employees, shareholders or third parties with whom we have relationships, which could adversely affect our operations or financial condition. If additional gaming regulations are adopted in a jurisdiction in which we operate, such regulations could impose restrictions or costs that could have a significant adverse effect on us. From time to time, various proposals are introduced in the legislatures of some of the jurisdictions in which we have existing or planned operations that, if enacted, could adversely affect our directors, officers, key employees, or other aspects of our operations. To date, we have obtained all governmental licenses, findings of suitability, registrations, permits and approvals necessary for our operations. However, we can give no assurance that any additional licenses, permits and approvals that may be required will be given or that existing ones will be renewed or will not be revoked. Renewal is subject to, among other things, continued satisfaction of suitability requirements of our directors, officers, key employees and shareholders. Any failure to renew or maintain our licenses or to receive new licenses when necessary would have a material adverse effect on us.
Due to the nature of our business, we are subject to taxation in a number of jurisdictions and changes in, or new interpretation of, tax laws, tax rulings or their application by tax authorities could result in additional tax liabilities and could materially affect our financial condition and results of operations. SBT’s historic operating structure afforded it a relatively low effective corporate tax rate, and we expect to have a higher effective corporate tax rate.
Our tax obligations will be varied and include U.S. federal, state and international taxes due to the nature of our business. The tax laws that will be applicable to our business are subject to interpretation, and significant judgment will be required in determining our worldwide provision for income taxes. In the course of our business, there will be many transactions and calculations where the ultimate tax determination is uncertain. For example, compliance with the 2017 United States Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (“TCJA”) may require the collection of information not regularly produced within our Company, the use of estimates in our consolidated financial statements, and the exercise of significant judgment in accounting for its provisions. As regulations and guidance evolve with respect to the TCJA, and as we gather more information and perform more analysis, our results may differ from previous estimates and may materially affect our consolidated financial statements.
The gaming industry represents a significant source of tax revenue to the jurisdictions in which we will operate. Gaming companies and business-to-business providers in the gaming industry (directly and/or indirectly by way of their commercial relationships with operators) are currently subject to significant taxes and fees in addition to normal corporate income taxes, and such taxes and fees are subject to increase at any time. From time to time, various legislators and other government officials have proposed and adopted changes in tax laws, or in the administration or interpretation of such laws, affecting the gaming industry. In addition, any worsening of economic conditions and the large number of jurisdictions with significant current or projected budget deficits could intensify the efforts of governments to raise revenues through increases in gaming taxes and/or other taxes. It is not possible to determine with certainty the likelihood of changes in tax laws or in the administration or interpretation or enforcement of such laws. Any material increase, or the adoption of additional taxes or fees, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Additionally, tax authorities may impose indirect taxes on Internet-related commercial activity based on existing statutes and regulations which, in some cases, were established prior to the advent of the Internet. Tax authorities may interpret laws originally enacted for mature industries and apply it to newer industries, such as DraftKings. The application of such laws may be inconsistent from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. Our in-jurisdiction activities may vary from period to period which could result in differences in nexus from period to period. As of June 30, 2020, Old DK’s estimated contingent liability for indirect tax liabilities was $40.9 million. DraftKings’ estimated contingent liability for indirect taxes represents its best estimate of tax liability for jurisdictions in which it believes taxation is probable.
 
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We are subject to periodic review and audit by domestic and foreign tax authorities. Tax authorities may disagree with certain positions DraftKings or SBT has taken or that we will take, and any adverse outcome of such a review or audit could have a negative effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Although we believe that our tax provisions, positions and estimates are reasonable and appropriate, tax authorities may disagree with certain positions we have taken. In addition, economic and political pressures to increase tax revenue in various jurisdictions may make resolving tax disputes favorably more difficult. We are currently under Internal Revenue Service audit for prior tax years, with the primary unresolved issues relating to excise taxation of fantasy sports contests and informational reporting and withholding. The final resolution of that audit, and other audits or litigation, may differ from the amounts recorded in Old DK’s consolidated financial statements included herein and may materially affect our consolidated financial statements in the period or periods in which that determination is made.
Although SBT’s corporate and tax structure resulted in relatively low effective corporate tax rate for the business, we cannot guarantee the same tax efficiency due to the change in corporate structures, as well as developments in the cross-border taxation of international businesses with particular focus on the digital economy, as contemplated under the Base Erosion and Profit Shifting project and transfer pricing legislation. Further, in light of such structure, we may be exposed to a substantial tax liability if the relevant authorities raise claims with regards to SBT’s tax status in various jurisdictions, including in particular the manner in which it allocated or allocates profit amongst relevant jurisdictions for tax purposes.
Failure to protect or enforce our intellectual property rights or the costs involved in such enforcement could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We rely on trademark, copyright, patent, trade secret, and domain-name-protection laws to protect our proprietary rights. In the United States and internationally, we have filed various applications to protect aspects of our intellectual property, and currently hold a number of issued patents in multiple jurisdictions. In the future we may acquire additional patents or patent portfolios, which could require significant cash expenditures. However, third parties may knowingly or unknowingly infringe our proprietary rights, third parties may challenge proprietary rights held by us, and pending and future trademark and patent applications may not be approved. In addition, effective intellectual property protection may not be available in every country in which we operate or intend to operate our business. In any of these cases, we may be required to expend significant time and expense to prevent infringement or to enforce our rights. There can be no assurance that others will not offer products or services that are substantially similar to ours and compete with our business.
Circumstances outside our control could pose a threat to our intellectual property rights. For example, effective intellectual property protection may not be available in the United States or other countries from which our DFS, Sportsbook and iGaming product offerings or platforms are accessible. Also, the efforts we have taken to protect our proprietary rights may not be sufficient or effective. Any significant impairment of our intellectual property rights could harm our business or our ability to compete. Also, protecting our intellectual property rights is costly and time-consuming. Any unauthorized disclosure or use of our intellectual property could make it more expensive to do business, thereby harming our operating results. Furthermore, if we are unable to protect our proprietary rights or prevent unauthorized use or appropriation by third parties, the value of our brand and other intangible assets may be diminished, and competitors may be able to more effectively mimic our offerings and service. Any of these events could seriously harm our business.
We will rely on licenses to use the intellectual property rights of third parties which are incorporated into our products and services. Failure to renew or expand existing licenses may require us to modify, limit or discontinue certain offerings, which could materially affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We will rely on products, technologies and intellectual property that we license from third parties, for use in our business-to-business and business-to-consumers offerings. Substantially all of our offerings and services use intellectual property licensed from third parties. The future success of our
 
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business may depend, in part, on our ability to obtain, retain and/or expand licenses for popular technologies and games in a competitive market. We cannot assure that these third-party licenses, or support for such licensed products and technologies, will continue to be available to us on commercially reasonable terms, if at all. In the event that we cannot renew and/or expand existing licenses, we may be required to discontinue or limit our use of the products that include or incorporate the licensed intellectual property.
Some of our license agreements contain minimum guaranteed royalty payments to the third party. If we are unable to generate sufficient revenue to offset the minimum guaranteed royalty payments, it could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, cash flows and financial condition. Our license agreements generally allow for assignment in the event of a strategic transaction but contain some limited termination rights post-assignment. Certain of our license agreements grant the licensor rights to audit our use of their intellectual property. Disputes with licensors over uses or terms could result in the payment of additional royalties or penalties by us, cancellation or non-renewal of the underlying license or litigation.
The regulatory review process and licensing requirements also may preclude us from using technologies owned or developed by third parties if those parties are unwilling to subject themselves to regulatory review or do not meet regulatory requirements. Some gaming authorities require gaming manufacturers to obtain approval before engaging in certain transactions, such as acquisitions, mergers, reorganizations, financings, stock offerings and share repurchases. Obtaining such approvals can be costly and time consuming, and we cannot assure that such approvals will be granted or that the approval process will not result in delays or disruptions to our strategic objectives.
Our insurance may not provide adequate levels of coverage against claims.
We maintain insurance that we believe is customary for businesses of our size and type. However, there are types of losses we may incur that cannot be insured against or that we believe are not economically reasonable to insure. Moreover, any loss incurred could exceed policy limits and policy payments made to us may not be made on a timely basis. Such losses could adversely affect our business prospects, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.
Risk Factors Relating to the Integration of DraftKings’ and SBTech’s Businesses
While we work to integrate the DraftKings and SBT businesses and operations, management’s focus and resources may be diverted from operational matters and other strategic opportunities.
Successful integration of SBT’s operations, sports betting and gaming technology and personnel into those of DraftKings may place a significant burden on management and other internal resources. The diversion of management’s attention and any difficulties encountered in the transition and integration process could harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. In addition, uncertainty about the effect of the Business Combination on our systems, employees, customers, partners, and other third parties, including regulators, may have an adverse effect on us. These uncertainties may impair our ability to attract, retain and motivate key personnel for a period of time after the Business Combination.
Furthermore, the overall integration of the businesses may result in material unanticipated problems, expenses, liabilities, competitive responses, and loss of customers and other relationships. The difficulties of combining the operations of the companies include, among others, difficulties in integrating operations and systems; conforming standards, controls, procedures and accounting and other policies, business cultures and compensation structures; assimilating employees, including possible culture conflicts and different opinions on technical decisions and product roadmaps; managing the expanded operations of a larger and more complex company, including coordinating a geographically dispersed organization; and keeping existing customers and obtaining new customers. Many of these factors will be outside our control and any one of them could result in increased costs, decreases in the amount of expected revenues and diversion of management’s time and energy, which could materially impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
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We may incur successor liabilities due to conduct arising prior to the completion of the Business Combination.
We may be subject to certain liabilities of DraftKings and SBT. DraftKings and SBT at times may each become subject to litigation claims in the operation of its business, including, but not limited to, with respect to employee matters and contract matters. From time to time, we may also face intellectual property infringement, misappropriation, or invalidity/non-infringement claims from third parties, and some of these claims may lead to litigation. We may initiate claims to assert or defend their own intellectual property against third parties. Any litigation may be expensive and time-consuming and could divert management’s attention from its business and negatively affect its operating results or financial condition. The outcome of any litigation cannot be guaranteed and adverse outcomes can affect us negatively.
We may also face inquiry and investigation by governmental authorities, which could in turn lead to fines, as the regulatory landscape of sport betting and iGaming changes.
Although we expect that the Business Combination will produce substantial synergies, the integration of the two companies, incorporated in different countries, with geographically dispersed operations, and with different business cultures and compensation structures, presents significant management challenges. There can be no assurance that this integration, and the synergies expected to result from that integration, will be achieved as rapidly or to the extent currently anticipated.
The Business Combination involved the integration of two businesses that previously operated as independent businesses. We are devoting management attention and resources to integrating the businesses. We may encounter potential difficulties in the integration process including the following:

the inability to successfully integrate the two businesses, including operations, technologies, products and services, in a manner that permits us to achieve the cost savings and operating synergies anticipated to result from the Business Combination, which could result in the anticipated benefits of the Business Combination not being realized partly or wholly in the time frame currently anticipated or at all;

the loss of customers as a result of certain customers of either or both of the two businesses deciding not to continue to do business with us, or deciding to decrease their amount of business in order to reduce their reliance on a single company;

the necessity of coordinating geographically separated organizations, systems and facilities;

potential unknown liabilities and unforeseen expenses associated with the Business Combination;

the integration of personnel with diverse business backgrounds and business cultures, while maintaining focus on providing consistent, high-quality products and services;

the consolidation and rationalization of information technology platforms and administrative infrastructures as well as accounting systems and related financial reporting activities;

the potential weakening of relationships with regulators; and

the challenge of preserving important relationships and resolving potential conflicts that may arise.
Furthermore, it is possible that the integration process could result in the loss of talented employees or skilled workers. The loss of talented employees and skilled workers could adversely affect our ability to successfully conduct our businesses because of such employees’ experience and knowledge of the respective business. In addition, we could be adversely affected by the diversion of management’s attention and any delays or difficulties encountered in connection with the integration of DraftKings and SBT. The process of integrating operations could cause an interruption of, or loss of momentum in, the activities of the businesses. If we experience difficulties with the integration process, the anticipated benefits of the Business Combination may not be realized fully or at all, or may take longer to realize
 
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than expected. These integration matters could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition or prospects during this transition period and for an undetermined period after completion of the Business Combination.
Our business now includes a B2B business model, primarily in international jurisdictions, which business depends on the underlying financial performance of our direct operators and its resellers. As a material part of SBT’s revenue is currently generated through resellers and direct sales to operators, a decline in such resellers’ or direct operators’ financial performance or a termination of some or all of the agreements with such resellers or operators could have a material adverse effect on our business.
SBT historically offered its services directly to operators in Europe and uses a reseller model in Asia. SBT’s historical financial performance depended on the underlying financial performance of its direct operators and its resellers. In particular, SBT relied primarily on one reseller for its Asia revenue. This reseller accounted for approximately 46% of SBT’s revenue in the year ended December 31, 2019. An adverse decline in the underlying financial performance of key SBT operators or resellers, or a termination of some or all of the agreements with such resellers or operators, could have a material adverse effect on our business.
Given the increased number of jurisdictions in which we operate, we may experience delays in the licensing application and approval process, depending on the regulatory requirements in each relevant jurisdiction.
Regulated gaming license applications frequently involve an in-depth suitability review of the applicant’s business and associated individuals including certain officers, directors, key employees and significant shareholders. These applications take substantial time to prepare and submit, often requiring the production of multiple years’ worth of business and personal financial records and disclosures which take considerable time to compile, followed by the regulator’s investigatory process which may take months or even years to complete. Due to the increased number of jurisdictions in which we now operate, as well as additional jurisdictions which may pass laws authorizing and requiring licensure to operate sports betting, iGaming or daily fantasy sports, we may experience delays in the licensing application and approval process due to the volume of application materials we must prepare and submit and the number of jurisdictions for which information is required. Many jurisdictions in which we are already licensed will require additional applications and disclosures as a result of the Business Combination which may also contribute to delays in the licensing application and approval process in additional jurisdictions.
SBT has historically relied on a less formal financial reporting system and only began integrating a group-wide consistent financial reporting system in 2018, which may affect our ability to report historical financial performance accurately.
In January 2018, SBT implemented a global enterprise resource planning system which produces periodic consolidated financial reports. Prior to January 2018, SBT relied on internally generated financial reporting which consolidated a number of financial booking systems. It is possible that historical financial information was not fully aligned from the less formal system to the new system, which could affect the accuracy of historical financial information.
SBT’s business, which includes significant international operations, is likely to expose us to foreign currency transaction and translation risks. As a result, changes in the valuation of the U.S. dollar in relation to other currencies could have positive or negative effects on our profit and financial position.
SBT’s global operations are likely to expose us to foreign currency transaction and translation risks. Currency transaction risk occurs in conjunction with purchases and sales of products and services that are made in currencies other than the local currency of the subsidiary involved, for example if the parent company pays, or transfers U.S. dollars to a subsidiary in order to fund its expenses in local currencies. Currency translation risks occurs when the income statement and balance sheet of a
 
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foreign subsidiary is converted into currencies other than the local currency of the company involved, for example when the results of these subsidiaries are consolidated in the results of a parent company with a different reporting currency. As a result, SBT historically was, and we are expected to be, exposed to adverse movements in foreign currency exchange rates, which may adversely impact our financial positions and results of operations.
Our functional currency is the U.S. dollar, and as a result, we will be subject to foreign currency fluctuation due to SBT’s global presence and the fact that a significant majority of its revenues, operating expenses and assets and liabilities were non-U.S. dollar denominated. For example, an increase in the value of non-U.S. dollar currencies against the U.S. dollar could increase costs for delivery of products, services and also increase cost of local operating expenses and procurement of materials or services that we must purchase in foreign currencies by increasing labor and other costs that are denominated in such local currencies. These risks related to exchange rate fluctuations may increase in future periods as our operations outside of the United States expand.
Our foreign currency exposure will reflect SBT’s historical operations, which have been primarily in Euro (reflecting over 90% of its revenue in all reporting periods), which was SBT’s functional and reporting currency, and the British pound (which accounted for 10.2% and 5.0% of SBT’s revenue in the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively. See “SBT’s Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk — Foreign Currency Exchange Rate Risk.” SBT historically did not hedge its foreign currency transaction or translation exposure, though we may consider doing so in the future. Foreign currency exchange rate volatility, as well as the cost of any hedging arrangements entered into in the future, may negatively affect our financial position and results of operations, and may adversely impact the comparability of results between periods.
We currently depend on the Kambi platform to operate our Sportsbook, and we intend to transition these operations to the SBT platform over time. As we plan and implement this transition, we may face a range of issues including the possibility that we may suffer service disruptions or impediments that make it more difficult for our customers to access our product offerings, all which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We currently depend on Kambi and its platform to operate our Sportsbook product offering; however, we intend to transition the Sportsbook platform to that of SBT over time. Any transition of the Sportsbook platform currently provided by Kambi to that of SBT will be difficult to implement and could cause us to incur significant time and expense. Pursuant to an addendum entered into on July 23, 2020, we committed to pay Kambi for use of its platform until September 30, 2021. Until such time, any significant disruption of, or interference with, our use of Kambi would negatively impact our operations and our business could be seriously harmed. If our users are not able to access Sportsbook or encounter difficulties in doing so, we may lose users, and our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
In addition, Kambi may take actions beyond our control that could seriously harm our business, including discontinuing or limiting our access to its sports betting platform; increasing pricing terms; terminating or seeking to terminate our contractual relationship altogether; establishing more favorable relationships with one or more of our competitors; or modifying or interpreting its terms of service or other policies in a manner that impacts our ability to run our business and operations.
Risk Factors Relating to Our Common Stock
This offering and future sales of substantial amounts of Class A common stock in the public market, or the perception that such sales may occur, could cause the market price for our Class A common stock to decline.
The sale of shares of our Class A common stock in the public market, or the perception that such sales could occur, could harm the prevailing market price of shares of our Class A common stock. These
 
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sales, or the possibility that these sales may occur, also might make it more difficult for us to sell equity securities in the future at a time and at a price that we deem appropriate.
Upon the closing of this offering, we expect to have outstanding an aggregate of 373,402,499 shares of Class A common stock (or 375,802,499 shares if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares), based on 357,402,499 shares outstanding on October 1, 2020 and including the 16,000,000 shares of Class A common stock offered by us in this offering (and an additional 2,400,000 underlying the underwriters option to purchase additional shares from us). 182.5 million of these shares will be freely tradable without restriction or further registration under the Securities Act, except for shares of Class A common stock held by certain of our “affiliates,” as that term is defined in Rule 144 under the Securities Act (“Rule 144”), whose sales would be subject to the restrictions on resale set forth in Rule 144.
In connection with this offering, we, our executive officers and directors and the selling stockholders have entered into amended and restated lock-up agreements with the underwriters of this offering, under which: (i) we and the selling stockholders have agreed, or will agree, that, subject to certain exceptions, we and they will not sell, dispose of or hedge any shares or any securities convertible into or exchangeable for shares of our Class A common stock for 90 days following the date of this prospectus and (ii) our executive officers and directors have agreed, or will agree, that, subject to certain exceptions, they will not sell, dispose of or hedge any shares or any securities convertible into or exchangeable for shares of our Class A common stock for 45 days following the date of this prospectus. At any time and without public notice, Credit Suisse Securities (USA) LLC and Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC may, in their sole discretion, release all or some of the securities.
In addition, in contemplation of this offering, the selling stockholders who were subject to the transfer restrictions under the Underwriters Lock Up Agreement entered into in connection with our June offering, the Stockholders Agreement (as further described in the section entitled “Shares Available for Future Sale — Lock-Up Agreements”) and other Company lock-ups, were released from such transfer restrictions solely with respect to the portion of their securities offered for sale hereunder. Their remaining shares will continue to be subject to the transfer restrictions under the Stockholder Agreement, other Company lock-ups (as applicable), as well as those in the amended and restated lock-up agreement with the underwriters discussed above (which is for 90 days following the date of this prospectus). On October 5, 2020, we and the parties to the Stockholders Agreement entered into an amendment to the Stockholders Agreement, which releases all of the stockholders party to the Stockholders Agreement from the lock-up restrictions set forth therein effective as of October 20, 2020. As a result, no stockholders will remain bound by a lock-up under the Stockholders Agreement effective as of October 20, 2020. However, our directors and officers have entered into amended and restated lock-up agreements with the underwriters of this offering, under which they have agreed, or will agree, that, subject to certain exceptions, they will not sell, dispose of or hedge any shares or any securities convertible into or exchangeable for shares of our Class A common stock for 45 days following the date of this prospectus.
The transfer restrictions in the lock-up agreement with the underwriters and the Stockholders Agreement include certain exclusions, including a carveout for shares transferred pursuant to a pledge of our common stock in connection with a margin loan. A transfer of shares pursuant to a pledge or subsequent margin call could result in additional shares becoming freely tradable prior to the expiration of the applicable lock-up period.
Following the Closing of the Business Combination, certain stock and optionholders agreed not to transfer the shares and options held by them until October 20, 2020. The shares held by such stockholders were subsequently registered for resale.
In addition, we have reserved a total of 52,870,000 shares of Class A common stock for issuance under our Incentive Plan and 5,840,000 shares under our ESPP. Additionally, each of our Incentive Plan and ESPP provide for an automatic increase in the number of shares that will be reserved for issuance. Any shares of Class A common stock that we issue under our Incentive Plan, ESPP or other equity incentive plans that we may adopt in the future would dilute the percentage ownership held by the investors who purchase shares of Class A common stock in this offering.
 
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As restrictions on resale end or if these stockholders exercise their sale, exchange or registration rights and sell shares or are perceived by the market as intending to sell shares, the market price of our shares of Class A common stock could drop significantly. These factors could also make it more difficult for us to raise additional funds through future offerings of our shares of Class A common stock or other securities.
In the future, we may also issue securities in connection with investments, acquisitions or capital raising activities. In particular, the number of shares of our Class A common stock issued in connection with an investment or acquisition, or to raise additional equity capital, could constitute a material portion of our then-outstanding shares of our Class A common stock. Any such issuance of additional securities in the future may result in additional dilution to you or may adversely impact the price of our Class A common stock.
We have broad discretion over the use of net proceeds we receive from the sale of shares of Class A common stock in this offering, and despite our efforts may not use them in a manner that increases the value of your investment.
Our management has broad discretion to use the net proceeds we receive from the sale of shares of Class A common stock in this offering for general corporate purposes and could spend these funds in ways that do not improve our results of operations or enhance the value of our Class A common stock. The failure by our management to apply these funds effectively could have an adverse effect on our business and cause the price of our Class A common stock to decline.
The underwriters of this offering may waive or release parties to the lock-up agreements entered into in connection with this offering, which could adversely affect the price of our Class A common stock.
We, our executive officers and directors and the selling stockholders have entered or will enter into amended and restated lock-up agreements pursuant to which (i) we and the selling stockholders will be subject to certain restrictions with respect to the sale or other disposition of our Class A common stock until 90 days following the date of this prospectus and (ii) our executive officers and directors will be subject to certain restrictions with respect to the sale or other disposition of our Class A common stock until 45 days following the date of this propsectus. Credit Suisse Securities (USA) LLC and Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC, as the representatives of the underwriters, at any time and without notice, may release all or any portion of the Class A common stock subject to the foregoing lock-up agreements. See “Underwriting” for more information on these agreements. If the restrictions under the lock-up agreements are waived, then the Class A common stock, subject to compliance with the Securities Act or exceptions therefrom, will be available for sale into the public markets, which could cause the market price of our Class A common stock to decline and impair our ability to raise capital. Sales of a substantial number of shares upon expiration of the lock-up agreements, the perception that such sales may occur, or early release of these agreements, could cause our market price to fall or make it more difficult for you to sell your Class A common stock at a time and price that you deem appropriate.
We may be required to take write-downs or write-offs, restructuring and impairment or other charges that could have a significant negative effect on our financial condition, results of operations and stock price, which could cause you to lose some or all of your investment.
We may be forced to write-down or write-off assets, restructure our operations, or incur impairment or other charges that could result in losses. Even though these charges may be non-cash items and not have an immediate impact on our liquidity, the fact that we report charges of this nature could contribute to negative market perceptions about us or our securities. In addition, charges of this nature may cause us to violate net worth or other covenants to which we may be subject. Accordingly, a stockholder could suffer a reduction in the value of their shares.
The trading price of our Class A common stock may be volatile.
The trading price of our Class A common stock could be volatile and subject to wide fluctuations in response to various factors, some of which are beyond our control. Any of the factors listed below could
 
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have a material adverse effect on your investment in our Class A common stock and our Class A common stock may trade at prices significantly below the price you paid for them. In such circumstances, the trading price of our securities may not recover and may experience a further decline.
Factors affecting the trading price of our Class A common stock may include:

actual or anticipated fluctuations in our quarterly financial results or the quarterly financial results of companies perceived to be similar to us;

changes in the market’s expectations about our operating results;

success of competitors;

lack of adjacent competitors;

our operating results failing to meet the expectation of securities analysts or investors in a particular period;

changes in financial estimates and recommendations by securities analysts concerning DraftKings or the industries in which we operate in general;

operating and stock price performance of other companies that investors deem comparable to us;

our ability to market new and enhanced products and services on a timely basis;

changes in laws and regulations affecting our business;

commencement of, or involvement in, litigation involving us;

changes in our capital structure, such as future issuances of securities or the incurrence of additional debt;

the volume of shares of our Class A common stock available for public sale;

any major change in our board or management;

sales of substantial amounts of our Class A common stock by our directors, executive officers or significant stockholders or the perception that such sales could occur; and

general economic and political conditions such as recessions, interest rates, fuel prices, international currency fluctuations and acts of war or terrorism.
Broad market and industry factors may materially harm the market price of our Class A common stock irrespective of our operating performance. The stock market in general, and The Nasdaq Stock Market, have experienced price and volume fluctuations that have often been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of the particular companies affected. The trading prices and valuations of these stocks, and of our Class A common stock, may not be predictable. A loss of investor confidence in the market for the stocks of other companies which investors perceive to be similar to us could depress our stock price regardless of our business, prospects, financial conditions or results of operations. A decline in the market price of our Class A common stock also could adversely affect our ability to issue additional securities and our ability to obtain additional financing in the future.
The coverage of our business or our Class A common stock by securities or industry analysts or the absence thereof could adversely affect our securities and trading volume.
The trading market for our Class A common stock is influenced in part by the research and other reports that industry or securities analysts publish about us or our business or industry from time to time. We do not control these analysts or the content and opinions included in their reports. Analysts who publish information about our securities may have had relatively little experience with our company given our history, which could affect their ability to accurately forecast our results and make it more likely that we fail to meet their estimates. If analysts do cover us and one or more of them downgrade our securities, or if they issue other unfavorable commentary about us or our industry or inaccurate research, our stock price would likely decline. Furthermore, if one or more of these analysts cease
 
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coverage or fail to regularly publish reports on us, we could lose visibility in the financial markets. Any of the foregoing would likely cause our stock price and trading volume to decline.
Because we are a “controlled company” under The Nasdaq Stock Market listing standards, our stockholders may not have certain corporate governance protections that are available to stockholders of companies that are not controlled companies.
So long as more than 50% of the voting power for the election of directors of DraftKings is held by an individual, a group or another company, we will qualify as a “controlled company” under The Nasdaq Stock Market listing requirements. Mr. Robins controls a majority of the voting power of our outstanding capital stock. As a result, we are a “controlled company” under The Nasdaq Stock Market listing standards and are not subject to the requirements that would otherwise require us to have: (i) a majority of independent directors; (ii) a nominating committee comprised solely of independent directors; (iii) compensation of our executive officers determined by a majority of the independent directors or a compensation committee comprised solely of independent directors; and (iv) director nominees selected, or recommended for the Board’s selection, either by a majority of the independent directors or a nominating committee comprised solely of independent directors.
Mr. Robins may have his interest in DraftKings diluted due to future equity issuances or his own actions in selling shares of Class A common stock, in each case, which could result in a loss of the “controlled company” exemption under The Nasdaq Stock Market listing rules. We would then be required to comply with those provisions of The Nasdaq Stock Market listing requirements.
Our dual class structure has the effect of concentrating voting power with our Chief Executive Officer and Co-Founder, which limits an investor’s ability to influence the outcome of important transactions, including a change in control.
Shares of our Class B common stock have 10 votes per share, while shares of our Class A common stock have one vote per share. Mr. Robins, one of the founders of DraftKings, holds all of the issued and outstanding shares of our Class B common stock. Accordingly, Mr. Robins holds approximately 90% of the voting power of our capital stock on a fully-diluted basis and will be able to control matters submitted to our stockholders for approval, including the election of directors, amendments of our organizational documents and any merger, consolidation, sale of all or substantially all of our assets or other major corporate transactions. Mr. Robins may have interests that differ from yours and may vote in a way with which you disagree and which may be adverse to your interests. This concentrated control may have the effect of delaying, preventing or deterring a change in control of DraftKings, could deprive our stockholders of an opportunity to receive a premium for their capital stock as part of a sale of DraftKings, and might ultimately affect the market price of shares of our Class A common stock. For information about our dual class structure, see the section titled “Description of Capital Stock.
Our dual class structure may affect the trading price of our Class A common stock.
Our dual class structure may result in volatility in the market price of our Class A common stock whether due to adverse publicity or reaction from institutional or other investors or proxy advisory firms. For example, certain index providers have announced restrictions on including companies with multiple-class share structures in certain of their indices. In July 2017, FTSE Russell and S&P Dow Jones announced that they would cease to allow most newly public companies with dual or multi-class capital structures to be included in their indices. Affected indices include the Russell 2000 and the S&P 500, S&P MidCap 400 and S&P SmallCap 600, which together make up the S&P Composite 1500. Beginning in 2017, MSCI, a leading stock index provider, opened public consultations on their treatment of no-vote and multi-class structures and temporarily barred new multi-class listings from certain of its indices; however, in October 2018, MSCI announced its decision to include equity securities “with unequal voting structures” in its indices and to launch a new index that specifically includes voting rights in its eligibility criteria. Under the announced policies, our dual class capital structure would make us ineligible for inclusion in certain indices, and as a result, mutual funds, exchange-traded funds and other investment vehicles that attempt to passively track those indices will not be investing in our stock. These policies are still fairly new and it is as of yet unclear what effect, if any, they will have on the
 
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valuations of publicly traded companies excluded from the indices, but it is possible that they may depress these valuations compared to those of other similar companies that are included. Because of our dual class structure, we will likely be excluded from certain of these indexes and we cannot assure you that other stock indexes will not take similar actions. Given the sustained flow of investment funds into passive strategies that seek to track certain indexes, exclusion from stock indexes would likely preclude investment by many of these funds and could make shares of our Class A common stock less attractive to other investors. As a result, the market price of shares of our Class A common stock could be adversely affected.
Nevada law and provisions our amended and restated articles of incorporation and bylaws could make a takeover proposal more difficult.
Our organizational documents are governed by Nevada law. Certain provisions of Nevada law and of our amended and restated articles of incorporation and bylaws could discourage, delay, defer or prevent a merger, tender offer, proxy contest or other change of control transaction that a stockholder might consider in its best interest, including those attempts that might result in a premium over the market price for the shares of Class A common stock held by our stockholders. These provisions provide for, among other things:

the ability of our Board to issue one or more series of preferred stock;

stockholder action by written consent only until the first time when Mr. Robins ceases to beneficially own a majority of the voting power of our capital stock;

certain limitations on convening special stockholder meetings;

advance notice for nominations of directors by stockholders and for stockholders to include matters to be considered at our annual meetings;

amendment of certain provisions of the organizational documents only by the affirmative vote of (i) a majority of the voting power of our capital stock so long as Mr. Robins beneficially owns shares representing a majority of the voting power of our capital stock and (ii) at least two-thirds of the voting power of the capital stock from and after the time that Mr. Robins ceases to beneficially own shares representing a majority of the voting power of our voting stock; and

a dual class common stock structure, which provides Mr. Robins with the ability to control the outcome of matters requiring stockholder approval, even though Mr. Robins owns less than a majority of the outstanding shares of our capital stock.
These anti-takeover provisions as well as certain provisions of Nevada law could make it more difficult for a third party to acquire DraftKings, even if the third party’s offer may be considered beneficial by many of our stockholders. As a result, our stockholders may be limited in their ability to obtain a premium for their shares. If prospective takeovers are not consummated for any reason, we may experience negative reactions from the financial markets, including negative impacts on the price of our common stock. These provisions could also discourage proxy contests and make it more difficult for our stockholders to elect directors of their choosing and to cause us to take other corporate actions. See “Description of Capital Stock.”
Our amended and restated articles of incorporation designate the Eighth Judicial District Court of Clark County, Nevada as the exclusive forum for certain types of actions and proceedings that may be initiated by our stockholders, which could limit stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers, employees or agents.
Our amended and restated articles of incorporation require that, to the fullest extent permitted by law, and unless we otherwise consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Eighth Judicial District Court of Clark County, Nevada (or if the Eighth Judicial District Court of Clark County, Nevada does not have jurisdiction, any other state district court located in the State of Nevada, and if no state district court in the State of Nevada has jurisdiction, any federal court located in the State of Nevada), will be the exclusive forum for each of the following:

any action or proceeding brought in the name or right of DraftKings or on its behalf;
 
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any action asserting a claim for breach of any fiduciary duty owed by any director, officer, employee or agent of DraftKings to DraftKings or its stockholders;

any action asserting a claim arising pursuant to any provision of NRS Chapters 78 or 92A, our amended and restated articles of incorporation or our bylaws;

any action to interpret, apply, enforce or determine the validity of our amended and restated articles of incorporation or our bylaws; or

any action asserting a claim governed by the internal affairs doctrine.
The exclusive forum provision provides federal courts located in the State of Nevada as the forum for suits brought to enforce any duty or liability for which Section 27 of the Exchange Act establishes exclusive jurisdiction with the federal courts, or any other claim for which the federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction. In addition, Section 22 of the Securities Act provides that federal and state courts have concurrent jurisdiction over lawsuits brought the Securities Act or the rules and regulations thereunder. To the extent the exclusive forum provision restricts the courts in which claims arising under the Securities Act may be brought, there is uncertainty as to whether a court would enforce such a provision. We note that investors cannot waive compliance with the federal securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder. Although we believe this provision will benefit DraftKings by providing increased consistency in the application of Nevada law in the types of lawsuits to which it applies, the provision may have the effect of discouraging lawsuits against our directors and officers.
 
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USE OF PROCEEDS
We estimate that the net proceeds from our issuance and sale of shares of our Class A common stock in this offering will be approximately $      million (or $       million if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares), each after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. We will not receive any of the proceeds from the sale of Class A common stock offered by the selling stockholders, including any proceeds from the underwriters exercise of their option to purchase additional shares from the selling stockholders. We will, however, bear the costs associated with the sale of shares by the selling stockholders, other than underwriting discounts and commissions.
We intend to use the net proceeds from the offering for general corporate purposes.
 
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CAPITALIZATION
The following table sets forth the cash and cash equivalents and capitalization as of June 30, 2020:

on an actual basis; and

on an adjusted basis after giving effect to the offering, to give effect to the sale of 16,000,000 shares of our Class A common stock by us in this offering at an assumed public offering price of $63.78 per share, the last reported sale price of our Class A common stock on Nasdaq on October 2, 2020, after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.
This table should be read in conjunction with “Use of Proceeds,” “Unaudited Pro Forma Consolidated Financial Information,” DEAC’s, Old DK’s, and SBTech’s audited financial statements and related notes, as well as “DraftKings’ Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and “SBT’s Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations”, and other financial information, included elsewhere in this prospectus.
As of June 30,
2020
Actual
As adjusted
Cash and cash equivalents
$ 1,244,266 $ 2,241,234
A
Stockholders’ Equity:
Class A common stock, $0.0001 par value; 354,251 shares issued
and outstanding at June 30, 2020
35 37
A
Class B common stock, $0.0001 par value; 393,014 shares issued
and outstanding at June 30, 2020
39 39
Additional paid-in capital
3,395,129 4,392,095
A
Accumulated deficit
(1,228,901) (1,228,901)
Accumulated other comprehensive income
24,986 24,986
Total parent stockholders’ equity
2,191,288 3,188,256
Total Capitalization
2,191,288 3,188,256
A
In addition, each $1.00 increase or decrease in the assumed public offering of $63.78 per share, the last reported sale price of our Class A common stock on Nasdaq on October 2, 2020, would increase or decrease as applicable, the as adjusted amount of cash and cash equivalents, additional paid-in capital, total stockholders’ equity and total capitalization by approximately $15.6 million, assuming that the number of shares offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same, and after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions. We may also increase or decrease the number of shares we are offering. Each increase or decrease of 1.0 million shares in the number of shares offered by us would increase or decrease, as applicable, the as adjusted amount of each of additional paid-in capital, total stockholders’ equity and total capitalization by approximately $62.2 million, assuming that the assumed price to the public remains the same, and after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions.
 
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DILUTION
If you invest in our Class A common stock, your interest will be diluted to the extent of the difference between the public offering price per Class A common stock and the as adjusted net tangible book value per Class A common stock after this offering. Dilution results from the fact that the per share offering price of the Class A common stock is substantially in excess of the as adjusted net tangible book value per share attributable to our existing owners.
Our net tangible book value attributable to existing shareholders as of June 30, 2020 was $1.2 billion, or $3.30 per share. Our net tangible book value represents the amount of total tangible assets less total liabilities, and historical net tangible book value per share represents net tangible book value divided by the number of Class A common stock outstanding.
The following table illustrates this dilution on a per share basis:
Assumed public offering price per share
$ 63.78
Net tangible book value per share as of June 30, 2020
$ 3.30
Increase in as adjusted net tangible book value per share attributable to investors in this offering
$ 2.55
As adjusted net tangible book value per share after this offering
$ 5.85
As adjusted dilution per share to investors in this offering
$ 57.93
 
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MARKET PRICE, TICKER SYMBOL AND DIVIDEND INFORMATION
Market Price and Ticker Symbol
Our Class A common stock is currently listed on Nasdaq under the symbol “DKNG".
The closing price of the Class A common stock on October 2, 2020, was $63.78.
Holders
As of October 1, 2020, there were 1,113 holders of record of our Class A common stock and 279 holders of record of our warrants. Such numbers do not include beneficial owners holding our securities through nominee names. There is no public market for our Class B common stock.
Dividend Policy
We have not paid any cash dividends on our Class A common stock to date. The payment of cash dividends in the future will be dependent upon our revenues and earnings, if any, capital requirements and general financial condition. The payment of any cash dividends will be within the discretion of the Board at such time.
 
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SELECTED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL INFORMATION
The selected consolidated interim financial information as of June 30, 2020, and for the six months ended June 30, 2020 and 2019 was derived from the unaudited condensed interim consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. The selected historical financial information as of December 31, 2019 and 2018, and for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017 was derived from the audited historical consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus.
The following selected historical financial information should be read together with the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes and “DraftKings’ Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” appearing elsewhere in this prospectus. The selected historical financial information in this section is not intended to replace DraftKings’ consolidated financial statements and the related notes. DraftKings’ historical results are not necessarily indicative of DraftKings’ future results.
The financial information contained in this section relates to DraftKings, prior to and without giving pro forma effect to the impact of the Business Combination and, as a result, the results reflected in this section may not be indicative of our results going forward. See the section entitled “Unaudited Pro Forma Condensed Combined Financial Information” included elsewhere in this prospectus.
For the six months ended June 30,
For the year ended December 31,
Statement of Operations Data
2020
2019
2019
2018
2017
(unaudited)
(unaudited)
(audited)
(audited)
(audited)
(in thousands)
Revenue
$ 159,473 $ 125,482 $ 323,410 $ 226,277 $ 191,844
Total costs and expenses
386,034 184,220 469,955 303,058 265,042
Loss from operations
(226,561) (58,738) (146,545) (76,781) (73,198)
Other income (expense):
Interest income (expense), net
(2,939) 1,087 1,348 666 (1,541)
Gain on initial equity method
investment
3,000
Other expense, net
(607)
Income Tax Provision
332 16 58 105 210
Loss from equity method investment
285 479
Net Loss
$ (230,117) $ (57,667) $ (142,734) $ (76,220) $ (75,556)
Statement of Cash Flows Data
Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities
(134,971) (39,813) (78,880) (45,579) (88,437)
Net cash provided by (used in) investing activities
(198,652) (19,420) (42,271) (26,672) (7,715)
Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities
1,501,100 8,775 79,776 140,892 118,531
 
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As of June 30,
As of December 31,
Balance Sheet Data
2020
2019
2018
(unaudited)
(audited)
(audited)
(in thousands)
Total assets
$ 2,516,137 $ 330,725 $ 299,393
Total liabilities
324,849 380,305 223,343
Total redeemable convertible preferred stock and stockholders’ deficit
2,191,288 (49,580) 76,050
Key Performance Indicators
DraftKings’ reports the following financial and operational key performance indicators, which are used by management to assess its performance:
Adjusted EBITDA.   We define and calculate Adjusted EBITDA as net loss before the impact of interest income or expense, income tax expense and depreciation and amortization, as further adjusted for the following items: stock-based compensation, transaction-related costs, litigation, settlement and related costs and certain other non-recurring, non-cash and/or non-core items. Adjusted EBITDA is a financial measure that is not calculated in accordance with U.S. GAAP. See “DraftKings’ Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Non-GAAP Information” for important information about the limitations of Adjusted EBITDA and a reconciliation of Adjusted EBITDA to net loss, the most directly comparable financial measure calculated in accordance with U.S. GAAP.
Monthly Unique Payers (“MUPs”).   We define MUPs as the number of unique paid users (“payers”) per month who had a paid engagement (i.e., participated in a real-money DFS contest, sports betting or casino game) across one or more of our product offerings via our platform. For reported periods longer than one month, we average the MUPs for the months in the reported period.
A “unique paid user” or “unique payer” is any person who had one or more paid engagements via our platform during the period (i.e., a user that participates in a paid engagement across each of our product offerings counts as a single unique payer for the period). This measure does not include users who have not played with funds deposited in their wallet on our platform. We exclude users who have made a deposit but have not yet had a paid engagement. Unique payers or unique paid users include users who have participated in a paid engagement with promotional incentives, which are fungible with other funds deposited in their wallets on our platform; the number of these users included in MUPs has not been material to date and a substantial majority of such users are repeat users who have had paid engagements both prior to and after receiving incentives.
Average Revenue per MUP (ARPMUP).   We define and calculate ARPMUP as the average monthly revenue for a reporting period, divided by MUPs (i.e., the average number of unique payers) for the same period.
The following table presents our key performance indicators for the periods indicated:
Six months ended June 30,
Year ended December 31,
2020
2019
2019
2018
2017
(in thousands)
Revenue
$ 159,473 $ 125,482 $ 323,410 $ 226,227 $ 191,844
Net Loss
(230,117) (57,667) (142,734) (76,220) (75,556)
Adjusted EBITDA(1)
$ (106,956) $ (41,516) $ (98,640) $ (58,850) $ (48,884)
(1)
Adjusted EBITDA is a non-GAAP financial measure. See “DraftKings’ Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Non-GAAP Information” below for our definition of and additional information about Adjusted EBITDA and reconciliation to net loss, the most directly comparable U.S. GAAP financial measure.
 
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(2)
For important information about how we use our MUPs and ARPMUP, see “DraftKings’ Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Our Business Model — Growing our User Base.” Our business is seasonal and our results of operations and key performance indicators may not be comparable between fiscal quarters or between comparative year-over-year periods. See “DraftKings’ Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Quarterly Performance Trend and Seasonality.
 
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UNAUDITED PRO FORMA CONDENSED COMBINED FINANCIAL INFORMATION
Defined terms included below have the same meaning as terms defined and included elsewhere in this prospectus. Unless the context otherwise requires, the “Company” refers to DraftKings Inc. and its subsidiaries after the Closing, and DEAC prior to the Closing.
Introduction
The unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information is prepared in accordance with Article 11 of Regulation S-X. The unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information presents the pro forma effects of the Business Combination and the related transactions:

The Reverse Recapitalization between Merger Sub and DraftKings Inc., a Delaware corporation (“Old DK”);

The SBTech Acquisition;

The Private Placement; and

The issuance of Convertible Notes, which converted into shares of DEAC’s Class A common stock immediately prior to the consummation of the Business Combination.
DEAC was incorporated as a Delaware corporation on March 27, 2019, and completed its initial public offering on May 14, 2019. DEAC was a blank check company formed to acquire one or more businesses through a business combination transaction. Upon the closing of DEAC’s initial public offering, $400.0 million from the net proceeds thereof was placed in a trust account. At the closing of the Business Combination, the total amount in trust available for transaction consideration, net of cash used for redemptions, was $404.9 million.
The following describes the two operating entities with which DEAC combined on April 23, 2020:

Old DK was organized on December 29, 2011 as a Delaware corporation. It was founded with the initial mission of leveraging unique technology, analytics and marketing capabilities to deliver a daily fantasy sports offering.

SBTech was incorporated on July 24, 2007 under the laws of Gibraltar. It was originally named Jamtech Limited, subsequently renamed Networkpot Limited and thereafter renamed SBTech (Global) Limited on August 16, 2010.
The unaudited pro forma condensed combined statement of operations for the six months ended June 30, 2020 and year ended December 31, 2019 present the pro forma effect of the Business Combination and the related transactions as if they had been completed on January 1, 2019.
The unaudited pro forma consolidated financial information does not include an unaudited pro forma consolidated balance sheet as of June 30, 2020 as the Business Combination was consummated on April 23, 2020 and is reflected in our historical unaudited consolidated balance sheet as of June 30, 2020, included elsewhere in this prospectus.
The pro forma combined financial statements do not necessarily reflect what DraftKings’ results of operations would have been had the Business Combination and the related transactions occurred on the dates indicated. The pro forma combined financial information also may not be useful in predicting the future results of operations of the post-combination company. The actual results of operations may differ significantly from the pro forma amounts reflected herein due to a variety of factors.
The historical interim financial information of the Company was derived from the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements for the six months ended June 30, 2020, which are included elsewhere in this prospectus. The historical financial information of DEAC for the period between March 27, 2019 and December 31, 2019 was derived from the audited consolidated financial statements, which are included elsewhere in this prospectus. The historical financial information of Old DK was derived from the audited consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2019, which are included elsewhere in this prospectus. The historical financial information of SBTech
 
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was derived from the audited consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2019, which are included elsewhere in this prospectus.
This information should be read together with DEAC’s, Old DK’s, and SBTech’s audited financial statements and related notes, as well as “DraftKings’ Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and “SBT’s Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations”, and other financial information, included elsewhere in this prospectus.
The Reverse Recapitalization was accounted for as a reverse merger for which DraftKings was determined to be the accounting acquirer based on the following predominant factors:

Old DK has the largest voting interest in DraftKings;

The board of directors has 13 members, and DraftKings has nominated ten members of the Board;

Old DK’s former management makes up the vast majority of the management of DraftKings;

Old DK is the largest entity by revenue and net income/loss;

DraftKings’ Class B common stock issued to one DraftKings stockholder allows for incremental voting rights;

The post-combination company assumed Old DK’s name.
Other factors were considered but they would not change the preponderance of factors indicating that Old DK was the accounting acquirer.
The merger between Old DK and Merger Sub was accounted for as a reverse recapitalization, with no goodwill or other intangible assets recorded, in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Under this method of accounting, DEAC was treated as the “acquired” company for financial reporting purposes. Accordingly, for accounting purposes, the Reverse Recapitalization was treated as the equivalent of Old DK issuing stock for the net assets of DEAC, accompanied by a recapitalization. The net assets of DEAC are stated at historical cost, with no goodwill or other intangible assets recorded. Operations prior to the Reverse Recapitalization are those of Old DK. The SBTech Acquisition was treated as a business combination under Financial Accounting Standards Board’s ASC 805, and was accounted for using the acquisition method of accounting. DraftKings recorded the fair value of assets acquired and liabilities assumed from SBTech.
Description of the Business Combination
Pursuant to the Business Combination Agreement, DEAC acquired all of the issued and outstanding equity interests of Old DK and SBTech in exchange for cash and equity.
 
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The following summarizes the consideration issued at closing in the Reverse Recapitalization and SBTech Acquisition at a $17.53 share price (as of April 23, 2020):
Total Consideration (in 000s)
Amounts
Share consideration – DraftKings
$ 3,620,939
Cash consideration – SBTech(1)
186,476
Share consideration – SBTech(2)
789,065
Total Merger Consideration
$ 4,596,480
(1)
Includes the cash consideration, adjusted for the Net Debt Amount, the Working Capital Adjustment, and the Aggregate Strike Price Amount, as stipulated by the Business Combination Agreement, resulting in cash consideration of $182.9 million. Also includes other cash consideration of $3.6 million related to transaction costs incurred by SBTech shareholders to be borne by DraftKings, costs related to the SBTech restructuring transaction that were paid by DraftKings, and the tail liability insurance for SBTech’s directors and officers, as specified in the Business Combination Agreement.
(2)
Includes $776,524 for the share consideration for SBTech equity of 40,739 shares and SBTech employees’ vested options of 3,557 options, and $12,541 of contingent consideration for the 720 earnout shares issued to former stockholders of SBTech as part of the Business Combination, recognized at their Acquisition Date fair value.
The following unaudited pro forma condensed combined statements of operations for the six months ended June 30, 2020 and the year ended December 31, 2019 are based on the historical financial statements of DEAC, Old DK, and SBTech. The unaudited pro forma adjustments are based on information currently available, and assumptions and estimates underlying the unaudited pro forma adjustments are described in the accompanying notes. Actual results may differ materially from the assumptions used to present the accompanying unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information.
 
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Unaudited Pro Forma Condensed Combined Statement of Operations
for the six months ended June 30, 2020
(Amounts in thousands, except per share data)
For the
Six Months
ended
June 30,
2020
For the
period from
January 1,
2020 to
April 23,
2020
For the
period from
January 1,
2020 to
April 23,
2020
Accounting
Policies and
Reclassification
Adjustments
(Note 2)
Purchase
Accounting
Adjustments
(Note 4 – PPA)
For the
Six Months
ended
June 30,
2020
DraftKings
(Historical)
DEAC
(Historical)
SBTech
(As Adjusted)
(Note 3)
Pro Forma
Adjustments
(Note 4 – PF)
Pro Forma
Combined
Revenue
$ 159,473 $ $ 28,970 $ $ $ $ 188,443
Cost of revenue
90,746 12,609 18,275
AA
121,630
Gross Profit
68,727 16,361 (18,275) 66,813
Operating Expenses:
Sales and marketing
99.894 4,346 104,240
General and administrative
146,804 1,979 12,291 (20,569)
AA
16
BB
130,625
250
DD
(10,146)
EE
Product and technology
48,590 17,635 66,225
Research and development expenses
17,635 (17,635)
Total Operating Expenses
295,288 1,979 34,272 (30,465) 16 301,090
(Loss) / Income from Operations
(226,561) (1,979) (17,911) 30,465 (18,291) (234,277)
Interest income (expense)
(2,939) (460) (3,399)
Other income - interest on Trust Account
1,444 (1,444)
BB
Financial Income
14 (14)
Financial Expenses
(474) 474
(Loss)/Income before Income Tax Expense
(229,500) (535) (18,371) 29,021 (18,291) (237,676)
Income Tax Expense/(Benefit)
332 316 121 8,008
CC
(5,048)
CC
3,729
Loss from equity method investment
285 285
Net (Loss)/Income
(230,117) (851) (18,492) 21,013 (13,243) (241,690)
Earnings per Share
Weighted average Class A shares outstanding
351,964,934
Loss per share (Basic and Diluted) attributable to Class A
common stockholders
$ (0.69)
 
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Unaudited Pro Forma Condensed Combined Statement of Operations
for the year ended December 31, 2019
(Amounts in thousands, except per share data)
For the
Year ended
December 31,
2019
March 27,
2019
(inception) to
December 31,
2019
For the
Year ended
December 31,
2019
Accounting
Policies and
Reclassification
Adjustments
(Note 2)
Pro Forma
Adjustments
(Note 4 – PF)
Purchase
Accounting
Adjustments
(Note 4 – PPA)
For the
Year ended
December 31,
2019
DraftKings
(Historical)
DEAC
(Historical)
SBTech
(As Adjusted)
(Note 3)
Pro Forma
Combined
Revenue
$ 323,410 $ $ 108,424 $ $ $ $ 431,834
Cost of revenue
103,889 60,649 64,253
AA
228,791
Gross Profit
219,521 47,775 (64,253) 203,043
Operating Expenses:
Sales and marketing
185,269 7,592 40
BB
192,901
General and administrative
124,868 1,857 13,230 (12,760)
AA
1,188
BB
128,883
500
DD
Product and technology
55,929 20,408 76,337
Research and development expenses
20,408 (20,408)
Total Operating Expenses
366,066 1,857 41,230 (12,260) 1,228 398,121
(Loss) / Income from
Operations
(146,545) (1,857) 6,545 12,260 (65,481) (195,078)
Interest income (expense)
1,348 (164) 1,184
Other income - interest on Trust Account
5,111 (5,111)
BB
Gain on initial equity method
investment
3,000 3,000
Financial Income
26 (26)
Financial Expenses
(190) 190
(Loss)/Income before Income
Tax Expense
(142,197) 3,254 6,381 7,149 (65,481) (190,894)
Income Tax Expense/(Benefit)
58 944 796 1,973
CC
(18,081)
CC
(14,310)
Loss from equity method investment
479 479
Net (Loss)/Income
(142,734) 2,310 5,585 5,176 (47,400) (177,063)
Earnings per Share
Weighted average Class A shares outstanding
351,964,934